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Archaeoacoustic analysis in the imperial palace Felix Romuliana in Eastern Serbia

TAG: pyramid, Rtanj, electromagnetic waves, ultrasound, infrasound, voice pyramid, Felix Romuliana, Gamzigrad, Zaječar, SBRG, SB Research Group

In November 2013, our research group and the Museum of Zaječar (Serbia) began a collaboration. Members of SBRG travelled close to the village of Gamzigrad to study the archaeoacoustic phenomena at the Roman imperial palace Felix Romuliana.

Felix Romuliana was built at the end of the third century AD by Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximus , emperor of the Tetrarchy, who ruled the empire from 305 to 311 AD. It was once part of the ancient Dacia and is situated in the southeast of Serbia, nestled amongst the hills a few kilometers from the town of Zaječar.

"Romuliana" comes from the name of the mother of the emperor, Romula, who lived there until the end of her life.  According to the contemporary Roman historian Lattantius, Romuliana was a priestess of the cult of Cybele (the Great Mother) practising their rites at Felix Romuliana.


Fig. 1 – The East Gate of the imperial palace Felix Romuliana


Fig. 2 – Some striking images of the interior of the imperial palace Felix Romuliana


Archeoacoustic analysis was carried out in the temple of Cybele inside the palace where it is belived Romula performed many sacrifices. Romula lived in the palace continuously, while her son the emperor Gaius Galerius was rarely present. Every corner of this country palace seems to have been built for a magical or ritual function as its construction has not been built for military defense.
A lot of bulls were sacrificed in front of the temple on a big stone in public view, however in a hidden part of the temple it is believed sacrificial ritual were made privately, something not in line with the Roman tradition.

Romula was devoted to the ‘Gods of the Mountain’ who were not the traditional Roman Gods, (Lattantius) and the blood flowed freely during her rituals. There is a sort of channel in the most hidden part of the temple where the blood of the victims could flow. During our studies we placed our microphones in this place where there are also powerful vibrations caused by the movement of groundwater. These vibrations had a direct effect on the psyche of people present at these bloody rituals, like standing in the belly of Mother Earth.

But who were these ancient gods? But Lattantius, historian of the time, only speaks about mysterious and harmful rituals by Romula and her acolytes. The place is really impressive and thanks to our collaboration with the local museum and archaeologists we are conducting research from a broader perspective.


Fig. 3 – The physics researcher S. Mizdrak (in the centre) during an interview by the local television inside the palace Felix Romuliana


Georadar images taken by a German research team, show the palace was built on a more ancient settlement extending beyond the palace walls. Images reveal a settlement to the north of the palace which has been buried, this includes a stone circle.

One mile to the East lies Magura hill on top of which are two tumuli, dedicated to Romuliana and Gaius Galerius.  Although this site possess significant natural phenomena that could well explain the sanctity of the place for thousands of years (the tumuli were built over a necropolis dating back to 3,500 BC. It is full of vibrational energy tuned to around 18 - 20Hz, the beta brainwave state (reference: Frederick et al., 1999).


Fig. 4 – The top of Magura hill, where it is possible to see the huge tumuli of  Romula and her son, the emperor Gaius Galerius


Fig. 5 – The model of the tumula of Romula and Gaius Galerius with their two mausoleums places to the east (from Museum of Zaječar)


Fig. 6 – Most of our recordings on Magura hill were taken inside the ruins of the Mausoleum of Galerius to avoid collecting spurious sounds or being disturbed by the wind


Fig. 7 – The search for ultrasounds inside the building with the Pettersson ultrasound detector did not find any ultrasounds


Romuliana, devotee of a religion that traces its rituals to prehistoric times,  influenced the decision of where to build the palace. Not because it was the place where the emperor was born, as some people assert without any evidence, but because this location was considered "magic" since ancient times. And the extraordinary influence of Romuliana on Gaius Galerius is well known and attested by contemporary historians.

The site therefore undoubtedly lends itself to a study of archaeoacoustics. For now we have fully confirmed the observations made previously in August of 2013, albeit with less accuracy of this time.

Some features of the Palace of Galerius have some peculiarities that seem to fall outside of ordinary civil or military Roman architecture and  Roman religious culture, instead having an esoteric function in esoteric/magical key. For example, the temple dedicated to Cybele, placed in the north-east side of the palace and enclosed to form an independent and reserved space for esoteric rites by Romula, distorts the normal square shape plan of the building.



Fig. 8 Above: view from the sky of the imperial palace (from UNESCO). The Temple of Cybele is circled in red. Below: the map of the building that shows the significant distortion of the square shape of the palace with modifications to this angle near the temple (from Museum of Zaječar)


In this area we found sounds that might explain why Cybele temple is the only place within the palace not oriented along the east-west axis of the building as in the Roman tradition. The palace is developed along the so-called "decumanus" the only way of communication clearly expressed. It appears to be influenced by the contours of the ground, however this does not explain the different orientation of the temple of Cybele which does not have the size that would require a different position in the general layout of the building. In contrast, the larger temple dedicated to Jupiter, is oriented along the east-west axis, as in the Roman tradition.


Fig. 9 - The “decumanus” with a perfect orientation along the East–West axis


We tried to emulate the methods the soothsayers of that time (the àuguri) who perceived the geomagnetic anomalies from underground using a " lituum", (a rod used by Roman dowsers as described by the historians of the period). The checks made with the help of a dowser seemed to be similar to the data obtained using our ultra-sensitive microphones. This confirms the possibility that the àuguri who were responsible for the orientation of the temple, were able to clearly perceive the low-frequency vibrations emanating from underground through their vibration receptors, (called Meissner 's receptors, which are found in the human skin, they are more efficient in people who are sensitive). These vibrations can also be felt by placing our ear to the ground close to where they eminate from to detect the same vibrations (through bone transmission).


Fig. 10 – The receptors (corpuscles) of Meissner in the skin, which are able to perceive low frequencies that the ear is not able to grasp (image from Wikipedia)


There is a variation of sounds coming from under the earth which follow the orientation of the temple (which is not perfectly oriented to the east, but is offset approximately 10 degree to the south).
We placed the microphones in the sacrificial pit of the temple, here is one of the sound files captures (to hear this, you need high-fidelity headphones with a large component of low frequencies otherwise you can not hear anything).

This structure includes a pit surrounded by bricks reliably identified as a "fossa sanguinis" (bloody pit): the space within which the worshipers of Cybele carried out the rite of "Taurobolium". During this cermony, the faithful stood below while above there was a priest  standing on a sturdy grille where a bull was sacrificed. The worshiper would then be bathed in the blood of the bull. It was believed that this was a rite of extraordinary power conducted in connection with the imperial cult. But here in Cybele’s Temple there is a distortion, because the “fossa sanguinis” is too small to accommodate a bull above us, this would have been sacrificed outside. Probably in these rites something else was sacrificed else and it was not certainly a chicken.

The sound coming from the basement has a continous frequency of 18-20 Hz, which has the possibility to entrain the psyche of those people present.  Creating  an atmosphere of excitement, while immersed in the darkness of the womb of the Great Mother, or rather inside the “fossa sanguinis”.

No similar sounds were found in the perimeter of the building, only some vibrations in the area of the former public baths, likely to result from the thermal water source which evidently once flowed into this structure.


Fig. 11 – We searched for sound frequencies in several locations within the perimeter of the building and even in a pond outside the perimeter without finding anything similar to those frequencies found in the temple of Cybele


In the picture below the remains of the pit at the bottom of the sacrificial part of the temple.


Fig. 12 – The "fossa sanguinis" (pit of blood) in the temple of Cybele


Fig. 13 – Here is the drain of blood probably which was very abundant seen the diameter


What kind of gods were those to whom Romula was inspired? What rituals were imposed? We can not know with any certainty, but you can see in the graph below the sounds we found in the sacrificial pit. These low frequencies and infrasounds contributed to a general atmosphere of excitement in a temple whose acoustical properties would have been at the very least at the same level as that of other buildings that remain standing in the palace today.
For an overview of the difference of vibrations which can be perceived in the temple of Cybele, or outside of this, it is useful to take a look at the graphic chart of the recordings made there.


Fig. 14 – Graphs of the recordings made in and around the Temple of Cybele. Above: there is a strong peak of low frequencies and infrasounds inside the "fossa sanguinis ". Below: here is the graphic that can be detected outside the temple on the stone where the bulls were sacrificed. As you can see there are no particular sounds


As you can see, there are no peaks outside of the temple of Cybele and the graph looks flat, also near the sacrifice stone positioned right in front of the temple at a distance of almost fifteen meters . The peak visible at the end of the curve is only an artifact imposed by the microphones which become unreliable over 60.000Hz .

Because this line of low frequencies follows perfectly the direction of the bottom of the temple and the orientation of the pit of sacrifice (fossa sanguinis) it is possible to say this is the reason for which the temple was built there and with the anomalous orientation. Romula probably wanted the maximum effect in the temple of the vibration from the subsoil.


Fig. 15 – In the images you can see what remains of the temple of Cybele today: only the base of the building


Fig. 16 – And this is the outside stone on which the bulls were sacrificed in front of the public


The study is already at an advanced stage and in the coming months, we will publish the preliminary results of the collaboration between our research group and the Museum of Zaječar.


Fig. 17 – The director of the Museum of Zaječar (from behind), Bora Dimitrijević, observing our measurements


A sincere thanks to the Director of the Museum of Zaječar, Bora Dimitrijević, to whom we extend our appreciation and to Maja Živić and Adrijana Maksimović who helped us obtain our measurements.

Paolo Debertolis, Nina Earl – December 4, 2013



SBRG’s research for an archaeoacoustic standard

TAG: archaeoacustics, archaeo-acoustics, archeology, electromagnetic waves, ultrasound, infrasound, voice pyramid, SBRG, SB Research Group

In mid-September 2013, the SBRG research team members interested in archaeoacoustics (not everyone in the team works on this topic) gathered in Zagreb (Croatia) at the Demiurg D.O.O laboratories to draw up an archaeoacoustic protocol and to develop a standard applicable to any archaeological site. Indeed it is important to define a standard at international level in order for other researchers to apply the same methodology that allows repeating any previous detection.

Most of the constructive criticism that was received in the last year questioned some of the final results by suggesting that there was a possibility that radio waves could have contaminated and tainted our records by infiltrating into the ultra-sensitive microphones used for the research. This is a possibility because condenser microphones are sensitive to radio waves, but only if these radio waves are very powerful and very close.

Besides mobile phones, which are always strictly switched off (also the battery has to be removed, because even when turned off mobiles phones regularly give the user's location through occasional pulses) the real concern was for radio waves coming from unusual terrestrial electromagnetic fields originating either from the abnormal diffusion of the magnetic field or from the tectonic movements of the Earth's crust.

In order to avoid any of the above, the physics researcher, Slobodan Mizdrak, devised specific electromagnetic sensors that can be used at the same time as microphones on the digital recorders that are normally used in archaeoacoustics (which have six to eight channels, or it would be better to say that they have three or four stereo tracks).


 Fig. 1 - The eight-track digital interface (MOTU 896mk3 fw 800 digital interface) that was used to connect the various microphones to the computer


The test used microphones for the air diffusion of sound (Sennheiser),underwater microphones (Hydrophones) and ultrasound microphones connected to a detector (Pettersson D 1000X) that directly transforms ultrasounds into audible sounds as well as two sensors (Demiurg sensors) with different sensitivity to electromagnetic waves.

Up to this stage only one spectrum analyzer had been used (model Spectran NF -3010 of the German factory Aaronia AG) to signal any nearby radio sources potentially disturbing recordings.  For a greater reliability of results if there are any magnetic fields nearby, now these can be recorded simultaneously with sound vibrations.

The graph on the computer will immediately report any radio waves in the surrounding areas that may interfere with the microphones.


 Fig. 2 - The image shows on the computer screen the six tracks (three-track stereo) obtained with the digital recorder. The two graphs in the middle, which were obtained from electromagnetic sensors with different sensitivity, point out some of the noises picked up by one of the sensors, while the other tracks show the recorded sounds from the microphones (these monitoring operations were carried out in the laboratory in Zagreb)


The equipment was also tested in the areas of Piljenice, Sisačko-Moslavačka (Croatia), located about 100 kilometers from Zagreb, in order to derive the basic guidelines for archaeoacoustics . This area is totally surrounded by the Croatian plain and it is completely free from anomalous electromagnetic phenomena, thus it was used to create a baseline in absence of acoustic or electromagnetic anomalies.


 Fig. 3 – A small lake in the Pilijenice area was used for baseline calculations in water with Aquarian Hydrophones (photographs by I.Tomek)



 Fig. 4 – Some images taken during the standard-checking recordings. Close to the digital recorder it is possible to see the Pettersson D 1000X detector



 Fig. 5 – The new sensors with different sensitivity (300Ω) built in the Demiurg laboratories  (Zagreb) which transform electromagnetic impulses from the environment, into electrical impulses used by the digital recorder



Once the basic standard of archaeoacoustics has been determined it is possible to check whether in a particular archaeological site there is any acoustic or electromagnetic phenomenon, either induced or natural, that will certainly affect the psyche of a person staying in that area. It is now equally possible to immediately identify a spurious phenomenon resulting from current human activity in the area, which could affect the recordings made in a specific archaeological site.

For this purpose as well as to have a comparison, recordings were also collected from an industrial environment of Zagreb where there are very high-levels of electromagnetic pollution.

Microphones were also subject to numerous tests in the Zagreb laboratory to investigate their sensitivity to electromagnetic phenomena by means of a radio waves generator, which provided further evidence of the very low sensitivity to radio waves of the shielded cables and of all the equipment used for the tests. The latter finally put the word “end” to all criticism raised some time ago over the inaccuracy of the method. Indeed the results strongly confirm all the data previously published by the research group.

The newly-devised procedure will be used in all future archaeoacoustic missions by SBRG and it constitutes a repeatable standard of reference for anyone doing research within the field of archaeoacoustics.

Paolo Debertolis – September 30, 2013




  Base line equipment for archaeoacoustics


2 PC computers and one mac pro

MOTU 896mk3 digital interface fw 800

ProTools 9.0.6 editing software

BatSound 4.0 audio analyzing software

Audacity audio editing software

Praat phonetics analyze software


2 Sennheiser mkh 3020 condenser microphones (10-70.000Hz)

2 Aquarian N2a hydrophones (10-100.000Hz)

4 Electromagnetic ”Demiurg” (300Ω) sensors

1 Tascam (Teac group) DR-6806-track digital portable recorderat 192 kHz sampling rate, 24-bit

1 Pettersson D1000x ultrasound detector

2 Genelec active studio speakers


Audio and electromagnetic recording range 10Hz-96kHz. With Pettersson device 500Hz-305kHz audio recording range

Simultaneous recording analyze 8-tracks of 192kHz audio.


Feed 1: microphone

Feed 2: hydrophone

Feed 3: electromagnetic sensor 1

Feed 4: electromagnetic sensor 2

Feed 5: Pettersson frequency division algorithm

Feed 6: Pettersson heterodyne algorithm

Feed 7: electromagnetic sensor 3

Feed 8: electromagnetic sensor 4




New sponsor from Finland joins SBRG group for archaeoacoustics research

TAG: archaeoacoustics, electromagnetic waves, ultrasounds, infrasounds, voice pyramid, SBRG, SB Research Group, Genelec

Some good news for our archaeoacoustic researches, we now have the support of Finnish manufacturer of professional audio speakers, Genelec Oy from Iisalmi (Finland), a new sponsor for our group.



 Fig. 1 - The active speakers Genelec 8030A in our laboratories


Their active speakers (Genelec mod. 8030A), just delivered, will be used for listening, monitoring and as a source of generating interferences to acoustic resonances in our research on ancient structures.


 Fig. 2 - Our sound engineer Heikki Savolainen at work in Demiurg laboratories in Zagreb (Croatia)


We have already begun a new intensive study in our laboratory (Demiurg) in Zagreb. We are grateful to our new sponsor for their support for archaeoacoustic research.

SBRG - September 22, 2013




Starting the analysis of Alatri archaeological site from archeoacoustic point of view


Tag: archaeoacoustics, Alatri, polygonal walls, low frequency, infrasounds

By the invitation of the independent researcher from Alatri, Ornello Tofani, SBRG research team through prof. agg. Paolo Debertolis began a study about archaeoacoustics on Alatri acropolis.

For now we only have used the sensitive microphone equipment to seize any sound vibrations both in the field of ultrasounds and infrasounds or low frequencies.

The tests were carried out over two days in mid-August 2013 in different points of the acropolis in the early hours of the morning to minimize the noise disturbance created by human activities.

This megalithic structure situated in the province of Frosinone (Italy), it has walls with pentagonal block perfectly joined without the use of mortar or other binding agent. Similar structures can be seen in the extraordinary Peruvian city of Cuzco, but Alatri has also been shown to possess unusual archaeoacoustic capacity.




  Fig. 1 - The stunning walls of polygonal blocks Alatri (Frosinone)


 Fig. 2 - The Stone of the Twelve Corners in Calle Hatun Rumiyuq in Cuzco (from Wikipedia)


  Fig. 3 - One of the huge stones of the temple located in the center of the acropolis and which now forms part of the basement of the cathedral dedicated to St. Paul and then to St. Sixtus I °. It does not seem to be much less than its equivalent in Cuzco because it has ten corners



 Fig. 4 - The “Porta Maggiore” of Alatri in the outside view (above) and inside (below). It is estimated that the lintel above the door has a weight of 27 tons


There is in fact a low frequency sound at a reduced volume at various points in the acropolis. This type of mechanical vibration, comes from the subsoil. It is possible that it has originated from tectonic movements of the underlying deep planes and may have a substantial direct effect of relaxation on the human organism according to the frequencies found capable of interfering with the brain activity  in the positive sense.

This last statement should be taken with caution and should be considered only as a preliminary result of this study. Therefore we will require further investigation, which will be held in December 2013 and also in subsequent steps, to assess whether the seasonal rhythm and the magnetic activity of the sun to be able to change the course of these sound characteristics present in the acropolis.


 Fig. 5 - The graphic analysis of one of the recorded files from Alatri. It is present a conspicuous component of low frequencies with a broad peak around 34Hz. Further analysis is needed to verify the behavior over time of this issue



 Fig. 6 - An image of procedures for listening and recording made in the acropolis


I mention that we have already found these frequencies by SBRG also on the hill of Visoćica (or Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has a significant effect on who goes to the top of it. But at this point we can have the doubt that, as the most famous Machu Picchu in the Urubamba Valley in Peru, the original construction of the acropolis would have had a ritual reason and only later it was adapted for defense purposes.

Paolo Debertolis - August 26, 2013



This is the "Voice of Alatri." The recording was made at 6 am in order to minimize the noise of human activities. To listen you must use a high fidelity stereo headset with a large component of bass frequencies. Otherwise you can not feel anything. The sound is similar to a burner that will continue to operate under the city, there are also natural spurious noises due to the environment. The file is in mp3 format, click to listen here 



Concluding the experiment on Mount Rtanj in Serbia

TAG: pyramids, Rtanj, pyramid Rtanj, electromagnetic waves, ultrasounds, infrasounds, voice pyramid, SBRG, SB Research Group, Spirit Rtanj, Centro Studi cosmological Nikola Tesla, Demiurg, Zepter International Creative Group

After more than a week of work, the international team of scientists concluded the study of the energy beam coming out the top of the mountain and on the frequencies found in nearby sites.

The slopes of the peak of Siljak (1565m), the highest point of the mountain group, was really hard to climb with the large amount of equipment needed to carry out the experiment. For this purpose we had some horses which carried the generator to power tools along with the fuel to make it work.





 Fig. 1 - The difficult ascent to the summit of Mount Rtanj, Siljak


  Fig. 2 - The help of four horses, absolutely necessary for the transport of heavier equipment (photo Zepter International Group and Creative Media Agent)


The main experiment conducted by Slobodan Mizdrak, a physics researcher from Croatia (who had a careful preparation in this field in his military education), was to designed to send to the heart of Rtanj similar frequencies to those emitted naturally from the mountains (VLF radio waves).



 Fig. 2 - Slobodan Mizdrak (photo Zepter International Group and Creative Media Agent)


The answer from the mountain was not long in returning; the pyramid produced an increased response of static energy on the top, this acted like a signal amplifier and put the instruments which had been left on top of the peak for several days in a serious crisis!


 Fig. 3 - The ruins of the chapel located on the top of the mountain


  Fig. 4 - Slobodan Mizdrak working to set up the equipment placed close to the ruins of the chapel (photo Tatjana Sučec)


The experiment was followed in real time by researchers at a base camp, this was linked via radio with the instruments placed on the summit of the mountain.





 Fig. 5 - The best results for the collection of infrasound on top of Siljak were not collected on the summit where there was too much wind, but in the tunnel located just below the chapel



 Fig. 6 - The stunning aerial images of researchers at work collected by the team Zepter International Group Creative and Media Agent (Olivera Miladinović and Sandra Vojvodić) on behalf of National Geographic



 Fig. 7 - On the right, the main organizer of the experiment and the scientific meeting, Saša Nađfeji (photo Zepter International Group and Creative Media Agent)


The amount of data collected is huge and it will take several months for analysis at three research institutions that have agreed to collaborate with this experiment to analyze (Statistics Institute of Zagreb, Statistics Institute of Beograd, Institute for Advanced Mathematics of Vienna).



 Fig. 8 - The base camp full of computers which constantly kept tabs on what was happening on top of Mount Rtanj, remotely monitoring the equipment


The results obtained in other locations are equally interesting, such as the neighboring sacred temple dedicated to Cybele in the palace of the Roman emperor Gaius Galerius, the ancient church of Vidovanska and in the site of Svetilište, probably dating from the Neolithic period.



 Fig. 9 - The church located next to the ruins of the oldest chapel in the site of Vidovdanska, a place considered sacred from very long time and full of legends



  Fig. 10 - In the palace of Gaius Galerius (Felix Romuliana) is the temple dedicated to Cybele where we conducted the best acoustic surveys


It will take several months for the analysis of all sound files collected to be analyzed.


 Fig. 11 - Three of the four members of the SBRG who participated in the experiment in Serbia. From left: Slobodan Mizdrak, Paolo Debertolis, Heikki Savolainen (the fourth member, Nina Earl, took the photographs for SBRG)


Paolo Debertolis – August 14, 2013



Translated by Nina earl


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