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Study of archaeoacoustic characteristics in Argimusco megalithic site (Sicily, Italy)

Tag: archaeoacoustics, archaeo-acoustics, Argimusco, Etna, Val Demone, low frequencies, rock carvings, rock art,  infrasound, cupel, purification pool, SBRG, SBRG, SB Research Group

In late June 2015, coinciding with a series of conferences in Sicily (Messina, Pedara, Montalbano) organized by E-Media Spa and at the invitation of its President Gaetano Santoro, some members of SBRG (Debertolis, Gullà, Tarabella) have traveled to this beautiful island to conduct investigations of archaeoacustics in Val Demone, located in North-East Sicily.

Our research mainly focused on the Argimusco plateau (Messina) with its megaliths, the Etna volcano and surrounding areas. Our attention was attracted in particular to the Argimusco megaliths although they are of natural origin, they act as great transducers of underground vibrations as with other sacred sites we analyzed.




Fig. 1 - Some moments during the surveys at Argimusco plateau



The site has to be considered an ancient sacred place, corroborated by the presence of purification pools carved into the rock along with cupels used for sacrifices with well engraved drains. These artifacts are typical of ancient places of pagan worship.




Fig. 2 - Above: a purification pool carved into the rock of a Argimusco megalith. Below and in the middle: a cupel for sacrifices with the channel for the flow of blood engraved on an Argimusco megalith


These artifacts are not uncommon, they can also be found in other Neolithic sites throughout the world, such as Sogmatar in Turkish Kurdistan close the the Syrian border. A site recognized in scientific literature as a very ancient place of worship. In particular, although there is a considerable geographical distance between Argimusco plateau in Sicily and Sogmatar plateau in Turkey, the morphology of these artifacts are totally comparable.


Fig. 3 - The Sogmatar plateau,Turkish Kurdistan (click to enlarge)


 Fig. 4 - Above: a purifying pool carved into the rock of Sogmatar plateau in southeastern Turkey. Below: a cupel for sacrifices with the channel for the flow of blood engraved in the stone of Sogmatar


If for Sogmatar the dating of these artifacts is difficult, it is even more so to date Argimusco artifacts, where unlike Sogmatar there is no incision that can be attributed to a period.
The landscape of Argimusco looks decidedly impressive in its complexity, located a short distance to the Etna volcano as the crow flies.


Fig. 5 - Some views of  Argimusco plateau and its megaliths


We measured very interesting vibrations in this location which appeared to be transmitted from the volcano, almost certainly due to the movement of magma.
For comparison we looked at other locations in the area of Etna volcano from Catania to Messina province.
In some locations around the Argimusco plateau, a vibration of around 8 Hz is found, as also found on the slopes of Etna volcano to a volume of 36dB.



 Fig. 6 - There is a significant component of infrasounds in the centre of Argimusco plateau around 8 Hz up to a volume of 36dB (taken by ultrasensitive microphones in air)


Even in the village of Pedara (Catania), just a few kilometers from the volcano we found a large numer of vibrations (infrasounds) between a few Hz and 10-12Hz.



Fig. 7 - Vibrator reliefs held in Pedara (Catania) with the geophone


Measuring the vibrations in a secondary crater of Etna volcano we detected practically continuous vibrations, due to the activity of the volcano. These vibrations are detectable with the same wavelength, but much more powerful in volume compared to Pedara town.



 Fig. 8 – The remarks made by geophone or high-sensitivity microphones and digital recorder in a secondary crater of Etna


 Fig. 9 – Some pictures taken with infrared camera showing the different composition of the cold lava terrain

The recordings carried out by ultra-sensitive microphones showed a "rumble" of infrasound with a peak around 10-12Hz to 28dB. It is definitely of sufficiently high volume to interfere with human physiology.


Fig. 10 – The peak of infrasounds at 10-12Hz  present inside the secondary crater as recorded by ultra-sensitive microphones in the air



Fig. 11 – The graphics of the remarks from the geophone, a geological device able to grasp more accurately infrasounds coming from underground


Visually you can see by the eye of our special cameras these vibrations as a succession of light coming from the rocks. This is well evidenced by the video below.


Click here for the video


In the following audio file the recorded infrasounds are transposed by software into the audible range, they appear to match the same pulses as the video images (listen here - we have to remember that, given the wide range of bass frequencies in the sound file, you must use high-fidelity headphones for hear them). It should be remembered that infrasound vibrations are inaudible to the human ear, but they could be perceived by vibrator receptors in the skin in sensitive people. For being able to hear, we had to move (transpose) the sound file up the audible band. Obviously this process changes the frequency of sound file, but not the characteristics of pulsing vibrations.

This type of vibration seemed to have a calming effect on the psyche of volunteers who have lent to the psychophysiological measurements in the same crater. Despite the windy and cold day.


Fig. 12 - Results of psychophysiological measurements on a volunteer within a secondary crater of Etna volcano



The same look and feel of psychophysiological measures in volunteers we have been able to observe in a dormant crater for more than 200 years at the base of the volcano (Mount Sona), a sign that these low frequencies have a positive effect on psychomotor skills of the examined subjects.


Fig. 13 - Evaluation of the psycho-physiological conditions of a volunteer inside the extinct crater of Mount Sona

The empirical assumption is therefore that this type of vibration can lead to a kind of psycho-physical relaxation for anyone in these places.

As regards Argimusco plateau, in addition to vibrations already detected in other neighboring areas around Etna, an interesting natural emission of electromagnetic waves of tectonic origin in the VLF (Very Low Frequencies) field has been observed. They were found in two peaks on the central plateau, but not elsewhere of 25 and 43KHz.


Fig. 14 - Spectrum of the electromagnetic waves on Argimusco plateau



The vibrations found here, appear in the same spectrum also noted on Etna volcano, but much less intense as detectable by the following chart.


Fig. 15 - Vibrations aspect detected by the geophone in Argimusco plateau near the megaliths


This difference is particularly evident if we overlap the two graphs, taken in the secondary crater of Etna (above) and found on Argimusco plateau (below).


Fig. 16 - Appearance of the two graphs of vibrations collected by the geophone between the secondary crater of Etna volcano (graphic higher) and those recorded in the vicinity of the Argimusco megaliths (lower graph). The morphology is similar, but the sound volume is lower


We observed an interesting phenomenon on some natural megaliths on Argimusco plateau: they can be made to resonate by the human voice, creating a kind of reverb that is visible instrumentally.
To perform this experiment we had the collaboration of a professional singer, Flavia Vallega, who uses the natural musical scale with "A" set at 432Hz.
In the pictures below, detected by the variable resonance camera (TRV, used in a lot our researches for making visible the vibrations), you can discriminate various areas with high vibratory response that appear lighter in color.


Fig. 17 - Analysis of the effect of resonance obtained by variable resonance camera (TRV) on a megalith after Flavia Vallega sings. The different colors of the spectrum indicate different areas of vibrations moving at different frequency


We obtained very interesting results in the analysis carried out by vector computer programs. These can highlight the variations in brightness of the molecules of water steam in the air which align themselves as a dipole in a magnetic field. The results of analysis seem to suggest that this phenomenon develops a spiral magnetic field during the resonance of the megalith shown clearly in the below image. But we will need to investigate further before drawing any conclusions.


Fig. 18 - Spiral magnetic field that seems to be generated during the resonance of megalith found by TRV camera


There is also a vibration in the audible range in the proximity of the megalith called the "Baboon" that the silence and in the absence of wind can be heard quite easily into the cavity present in it.

it is a dominant frequency of 26Hz followed by various harmonics up to about 60Hz. This sound in the audible range (listen here - use again Hi-Fi headphones), given its characteristics it is conceivable to be a movement attributable to an underground stream that visitors to the site in ancient times may have perceived as the sound of God voice. We have decided to call it "the Voice of Argimusco".


Fig. 19 - Spectrum of sound frequencies detected near the megalith called the "Baboon", clearly audible a low frequencies (Argimusco’s Voice)


Other megaliths of Argimusco plateau have a considerable resonance phenomenon. Near the megalith called the "Praying" there is a huge megalith with many cavities on its surface which act as many small resonators.
In this case, as well as the human voice, percussion instruments were used that possess a more extended bandwidth sound with its harmonics starting from the lowest frequencies.




Fig. 20 - Some phases of the resonance experiment by the "shamanic" or "Irish" drum (single head drum) to megalith


Fig. 21 - Appearance of the frequency response of the megalith by staining after striking the shamanic drum. Lighter colors correspond to a vibration response with higher frequency


The different coloring presented in Figure 21 is a subdivision of frequencies for hues.
This phenomenon is clearly visible by measuring instruments, it is amazing and shows the megalithic rock lighting for vibrations at the same time of the drum rhythm. Everything is clearly visible in the next video in which you can grasp the vibrating rhythm of the megalith that resonates synchronously to drumbeats.



Click here for the video


It is conceivable that the percussion instrument possesses numerous successive harmonics in addition to the base frequency, able to stimulate the large number of different cavities.

Is it possible that these empirical phenomena were known to ancient people, if so they did utilise them in some way? We cannot be sure, but we think that the sacredness of this place from ancient times is due to observation of such phenomena by our ancestors.
In other sacred sites we examined in several European and Asian countries (Malta, Serbia, Italy, England, Turkey and Kurdistan, Portugal etc.) we always found some phenomenon that was not also present in other nearby areas. It was not by accident a particular location was choosen to build a temple or perform sacred rites in virtue of these phenomena, capable of influencing the psyche of those who stood in those places.



Fig. 22 - A few more striking images of Argimusco megaliths on which hangs the ominous shadow of the volcano


It is undisputed that these surveys carried out within a week will be investigated in a systematic way with more missions to these locations again.

Paolo Debertolis, Daniele Gullà, Natalia Tarabella – October 30, 2015



Thanks to the E-Media Spa and the President Gaetano Santoro, its vice-president Rossella Guglielmino for collaboration and their availability thoughout this research. A great sincere thank you goes to Mauro Di Salvo. A hug from all of us to Flavia Vallega for her very beautiful voice that has managed to resonanate the Argimusco megaliths. Our thanks also go to all those who have contributed to the results of the experiments and the success of the conferences in archaeoacoustics.



Most of the photographs were taken by the architect Natalia Tarabella, on the left in the photo together with our collaborators Santo and Irene. The measurements were performed by Paolo Debertolis and Daniele Gullà.


 Edited by Nina Earl

Archaeoacoustic exploration in Montebello Castle (Rimini, Italy)

TAG: archaeoacoustics, archaeo-acoustics, archeology, vibration, infrasound, Montebello, Rimini, Azzurrina, vibrations, vibrational energy, SBRG, SB Research Group

With the start of summer SBRG group resumed their missions for the study of physical phenomena and archaeoacoustics in various sacred sites. With the rain or strong wind it is not possible to make measurements outdoors and even indoors the sound of water can prevent successful recordings.

Given the current political climate in the Balkans, the area of our research for the last 5 years, we have turned our attention to Italian archaeological sites that have very interesting physical phenomena or archaeoacoustic proprieties. Recalling that our research in Italy has expanded from Monte Amiata (Siena) to Cividale Hypogeum (Udine) to the Acropolis of Alatri (Frosinone) and Argimusco plateau (Messina) that we have examined in depth. We cannot mention here a dozen other national of real interest that we have explored more superficially.

The initial choice for this year was the Castle of Montebello, otherwise known as the Castle of Azzurrina. It is located in Montebello Torriana (Rimini) above the Valley of Marecchia and Uso. It is an interesting archaeological site whose memory is lost in time. We know that in the third century AD the Roman Empire erected an observation tower whose remains are still present today.

Fig. 1 - Montebello Castle in its current state


Fig. 2 - The entrance to the main building of the castle reveals the medieval origins


Fig. 3 - Some pictures of the inner courtyard of the castle


In the Middle Ages with the successive layers of defense it became a real castle whose first documentation dates from the twelfth century. In fact, the castle from 1186 became the property of the Malatesta family who bought the estate for an amount of money so high of 110 pounds of golden Lucca coins. Subsequently the Malatesta lost the castle in 1462 by the troops of Pope Pius II who in 1464 settled in the feud, and then in the castle. He gave the castle to the counts Guidi di Romagna, who have remained the owners to the present day.

The hypothesis of our study is that the many physical phenomena inside the castle originated before the rise of the Roman fortress (and later castle). That the hill upon which the castle sits was a sacred place and was specifically chosen because of its natural characteristics. Only later the place was used for defense as a settlement in wars.


Fig. 4 - The castle overlooking the Valley of Marecchia and Uso, with an amazing view from the manors tower

During the night of the June 21, 2015, Summer Solstice, and thanks to special permission from the manager to whom we are really very grateful, we placed our equipment inside. We chose this night because physical phenomena appear to be influenced by the increase of peculiar astronomical situation, as at other sacred sites (such as the acropolis of Alatri).


Fig. 5 - The striking appearance of the castle and the panorama visible from it on the night of June 21, 2015 after positioning our equipment


We examined the various rooms of the castle in contact with the ground and we were not disappointed. From the beginning our equipment perceived an abnormal vibration situation. Low frequencies are present in abundance everywhere and particularly in the tower, where the base acted as an ancient cold food storage area and where it is said, disappeared,the daughter of the commander of the castle, the famous child Azzurrina.

In this area there is also an old well with blades on the sides now closed by a floor that could have acted as a sounding board for the frequencies coming from underground. Having facilitated the collection of data following the same method as other sacred sites where we used similar natural transducers.



Fig. 6 - The ancient cold food storage area. Currently there is no underground access for the public


Fig. 7 - The area of microphone positions on top of an old well now closed

In particular, using the normal standard protocol registration SBRG (Standard SBSA), we found the frequency peaks of 7, 14 and 23 Hz (the last clearly perceivable by ear). These three peaks that alternate in volume, are always present. As regards the origin it is possible to hypothesize the movement of groundwater or even the movement of the geological fault. In both possibilities the vibrations appear to be stable and continuous.



Fig. 8 – The spectral analysis at different times of vibrations present in the vicinity of the ancient icebox in the logarithmic scale. The three peaks of low frequencies appear at different times with different volume, but are always present


Here is a sound sample from the tower in which the infrasonic band was made audible by transposingthrough special software, 17Hz upwards of the recorded frequencies. For greater appreciation of frequencies use high-fidelity stereo headphones and not the little laptop speakers as there is a large component of low frequencies.

The most interesting results have been achieved in the so-called "room of the strongbox" where in recent years the ground penetrating radar showed the presence of a circular object of about half a meter across, a gold or silver plate or a shield, buried in the center of the room at a meter and a half under the paving. In this room in the past years there has been several occurances of unexplained physical phenomena.


Fig. 9 - The so-called "Room of the Strogbox" where there are more perceptible vibrations, also subjectively, from underground especially in the middle of the room.


From the analysis by the variable resonance camera (TRV camera), it has emerged this room has a huge amount of vibration and in addition a spiral magnetic field which seems to interact with each person who comes into contact with it (see fig. 11).


Fig. 10 - L'analisi vibrazionale è stata eseguita mediante telecamera a risonanza variabile (TRV)The vibration analysis was performed using variable resonance camera (TRV camera)


Fig. 11 - The spiral magnetic field is detected by the "scattering" phenomenon recognized by the camera, or by the change of luminescence of the molecules of water steam caused by their alignment to the magnetic field.

Through the use of special software that is capable of enhancing the variations in brightness of the camera’s sensor pixels, it was possible to see the spread of vibrations from the underground air. These vibrations appear to be so powerful they can be felt or perceived through the palms of the hands via the Meissner corpuscles (receptors).

These receptors are found in the dermis surface layer of the skin occupying the marginal portion of the dermal papilla. They are particularly abundant in areas of skin without hair and thick as the ends of the fingers of the hands, soles of feet, lips and nipples. They are deputies to the fine movement receptors, that are tactile and can discriminate lower vibration frequencies. These receptors are widely stimulated by the vibrations found within this room.



Fig. 12 – This image represents the derivative of about 30 frames showing the areas of vibration more intense and persistent in time. The colored areas have different vibration frequencies where the higher density grows up to a meter of soil, showing greater inertia perceptible by the sensors of the Meissner present in the palms of hands and soles of the feet. This also accounts for the spiral field visible in the image 11


Fig. 13 - A picture of the researchers who carried out SBRG vibration pads. From the left: Paolo Debertolis and Daniele Gullà


 Fig. 14 - Still image of the castles keep


These preliminary results will be further detailed in an upcoming mission to be carried out in late summer.

Paolo Debertolis, Daniele Gullà – July 29, 2015


The research team SBRG is extremely grateful to Mrs. Daniela Condello Tiboni who has devoted much of her time for making available every corner of the castle for archaeoacoustic analysis. At the same time we are grateful to the owners of the castle, the Counts Guidi di Romagna, for their availability.


Edited by Nina Earl


Continuing the research of the SBRG at the geoglyph of Kanda in Macedonia

TAG: archaeoacoustic, archaeo-acoustic, archaeology, electromagnetic waves, ultrasounds, infra sounds, Macedonia, geoglyph, Sveti Nikole, Kanda, SBRG, SB Research Group

After the mission undertaken in March 2014 (here) at several sacred sites of the Sveti Nikole location in Macedonia, and on the basis of preliminary results obtained in the laboratory this last spring, the site of greatest interest from an archaeoacoustic point of view is the hill at Kanda.  It is important to remember that on the hill at Kanda there is a deep incision of a geoglyph only visible from the sky (by aircraft) and not from ground level nor from the surrounding mountains.  Consequently the results obtained in March made a second, more detailed, mission necessary by the SBRG which took place in July 2014.

For this mission and for subsequent more detailed ones, we give great thanks to the Mayor of Sveti Nikole, Zoran Tasev, for his support and generosity as well as his decisive vision considering the importance of this historical site that is in the process of being understood.


Fig. 1 – The geoglyph at Kanda photographed by the team during our aerial surveillance.  The two photos at the bottom were taken with special software used to increase the contrast of the digital camera


This geoglyph is surrounded by an oval shape whose principle axis is perfectly aligned in the direction North-South has a sort of inverted “W” inscribed on its inside. This letter seems to imitate the orientation of the star system Cassiopeia rather than an alphabetical letter.  It represents an easily identifiable design commonly used in antiquity as the symbol of the Great Mother.

In mythology Cassiopeia was known as the Queen of the Sky, the Great Mother and the mother of Andromeda who is the wife of Perseus.  Cassiopeia was the mythical queen of Ethiopia who challenged Poseidon with her beauty however its traditional western myth that has assigned this name to this constellation; for example Arab astronomers use a completely different name.


Fig. 2 – The constellation of Cassiopeia set out in relation to the Polar Star

As far as the alignment of the geoglyph with the constellation of Cassiopeia is concerned, a cluster of stars very close to the north pole stars and opposite the constellation of the Great Cart, this constellation is always visible from the northern hemisphere, so much so that even today it's used as a reference point to measure Sidereal Time; as did humans in antiquity.


Fig. 3 – Seasonal variations of the position of Cassiopeia at sunset

It is important not to forget that the sky rotating around the Sidereal North Pole and Cassiopeia appears on the cusp of the glyph at 04:32 in the morning between the 20th and 22nd of July with the oval's orientation exactly following a trajectory according to its principle axis.  According to some, this date corresponds to the birth date of Alexander the Great and the time of his birth in the morning.

All in all according to others, the glyph has nothing to do with Alexander the Great, but is placed on top of a much more ancient tomb which has the incision of the presumed image of the Constellation of Cassiopeia and the star from which the buried being came from.

The thought that the incision of the presumed image of the Constellation of Cassiopeia is not exactly correct either and must be further explained. Its as if the incision was made with the relative view of the buried being looking out towards the star of origin; in other words inversed.

In this case the design of the glyph is perfectly superimposed onto the image of the stellar constellation.  As far as the linguistic interpretation of the glyph is concerned its important to remember that in the past this symbol in Linear B was also associated with the cycle of reincarnation and the eternity of the soul.


Fig. 4 - The mysterious symbol in Linear B associated with eternity and the cycle of reincarnation


According to the researcher Domagoj Nikolić (Rochester Institute of Technology, Dubrovnik, Croatia) and the professor Aristotele Tentov (St. Kiril i Metodij University, Skopie, Macedonia) in Macedonian mythology the symbol of the geoglyph represents the God Se.  Se was the first child of the Great Mother and the supreme God of the ancient Macedonia's who created the entire universe.  This way, the Creator and the Great Mother also created the state of Macedonia to then incarnate in the persons of the King and Queen of Macedonia.  This theory is in perfect line with the ancient Dionysian mystery school teachings frequented by Olympia, the mother of Alexander the Great, who is mentioned by Pluto in his writings “The Life Of Alexander”.

It is important to read with attention the explanation of the SBRG researcher in this field, Domagoj Nikolić, published as a scientific study upon the acts of congress in Slovakia in December 2014, which summarises the preliminary results of our two missions to Kanda in 2014  (see original text).

The mission of July 2014 lasted one week, during which for four days the measuring equipment was placed on the inside of the perimeter of the geoglyph alternating the staff that was left to control and guard it day and night.

The principle equipment was placed under a gazebo placed on top of the hill and to measure the electromagnetic signal we used a tested MOTU digital audio interface with eight recording inputs, powered by a car battery that was recharged every day with a diesel generator.


Fig. 5 – Our sound engineer, the Finnish Heikki Savolainen, working at the computer during registrations with the MOTU interface. Behind him the researcher Domagoj Nikolić


 Fig. 6 - MOTU interface with the numerous cables connected to the sensors and Genelec speakers used as sound monitors


To this were connected eight different types of sensors, microphones and hydrophones including a 3D sensor used in our prior research which is capable of determine the origin of different signals to ensure that they are not for example signals from some nearby military base or radio/TV stations.  The selected recordings were also converted with PRAAT software to binary txt code for further analysis. Audio electromagnetic files were examined in Helsinki by the sound engineer Heikki Savolainen. This data was also sent to “St. Kiril i Metodij” University in Skopje for an indipendent study by professor Aristotel Tentov who also  participated in the research mission in the capacity of observer.

The geoglyph cannot be seen from earth, as can be seen in the image below. Nor is it very visible with the shades of the evening, even though you can imagine something is there.


 Fig. 7 -  The geoglyph as seen from above ground level with the evening shade.  Its presence can only be imagined


 Fig. 8 - Clearly rom the base of the hill it is not possible to suppose the geoglyph on the top


Fig. 9 - The green laser pointed towards the sky serves to verify the alignment of the geoglyph with the constellation of Cassiopeia during the night


The group of researchers who undertook the experiments was comprised of eight people, three Macedonian and five members of the SBRG from various nations.  Out of this group the actual astrotheologist and philosopher for SBRG was the Dalmatian Domagoj Nikolić, who replaced the previous historian that left the group over one year ago. Goran Marjanović from Serbia, an electronic engineer who replaced  Slobodan Mizdrak who guided the group in the Kanda mission of March 2014, but is now no longer part of the research group.  Also present for the SBRG group, the research coordinator and Italian medical doctor, Paolo Debertolis, the scientific assistant the British, Nina Earl and Finnish sound engineer Heikki Savolainen.


Fig. 10 - The complete SBRG research team.  In the centre the Mayor of Sveti Nikole, Zoran Tasev (third from the right)


Below a visible signal emitted from the hill on the oscilloscope as seen in July 2014, and as measured by the engineer Marianović. This signal also confirmed its existence even in this mission to Kanda.



Fig. 11 - Above:  the electromagnetic signal emanating from underground at the hill of Kanda as seen on the oscilloscope by the engineer Marianović.  Below:  the number of sound samples taken to identify any eventual differences in the electromagnetic signal


 Fig. 12 - The engineer Goran Marianović (on the left) during a measurement together with the researcher Domagoj Nikolić (on the right)


Beyond the electromagnetic signal there is also a low frequency mechanical vibration which was measured but only on the peak of the hill and its close proximity.  The equipment used to verify this sound are the same as the group have used many times before on previous research missions and thus we can confirm their dependability.  Below is a link to the sound recording that comprises a great number of infra sounds and to make it audible was transposed using software and a computer.  We advise you to listen to this recording with only high fidelity headphones with a good base response.


Fig. 13 - The various number of archaeoacustic recordings taken on the inside and the perimeter of the geoglyph. The photo below of professor Paolo Debertolis


The hypothesis is that it's generated by the flow of subterranean water that we discovered in large quantities.  The effect for those who are on top of the hill is notable, but not always unequivocal.  Some feel charged with energy whilst others feel bad and become very nervous.  The subjective response to these low frequency infra sounds is thus very variable, as we have discovered on our previous missions and in the laboratory of Neurophysiology at the University of Trieste with research that is still ongoing with various volunteers (here).

We also spent much time with the digital sound recorders at locations around the hill with the  geoglyph to discover the source and direction of the water flow.  Numerous measurements were taken at a total of 17 different locations.  It seems like all the surrounding zone has this underground water that was used once upon a time as it was at the archaeological site of Bylazora that is found nearby.  This site dates back to the reign of Peonia in VIIth century BC, a population that in IIIth century BC was absorbed by Macedonia.

On the basis of physical phenomena discovered, this geoglyphic site can be considered as part of the list of Balkan sacred sites such as Visoćica Hill  (Pyramids of Bosnia) (here) or the hill of Magura in Serbia (here) which we have researched in the past.



Fig. 14 - More images of the geoglyph positioned on the peak of the hill of Kanda.  Even in this case the aerial images utilise software to increase the contrast of the photo


As stated above close to Kanda can be found the archaeological site of Bylazora of which we have taken high resolution aerial photos which we also gave to the Archaeological Museum of Sveti Nikole who have, not to date, undertaken this type of research even though they have studied this site from a traditional archaeological perspective.  It seems like this site was destroyed by the Romans when they invaded the Balkans.  The signs that the city was destroyed by fire are more than evident, like the bones of the victims found together with numerous lances and arrows.  The columns of the site fell together with the roof where roof tiles can be found dispersed a bit everywhere.


Fig. 15 - The aerial shots taken by SBRG of the site of  Bylazora.  The photo below was taken with software to increase the contrast, the latest used in archaeology, present on the photo camera Olympus E-5


 Fig. 16 - The site of  Bylazora as seen from the ground.  The signs of destruction are dispersed a bit everywhere.  In the photo below on the left the Macedonian researcher Nikola Ristevski, to his right professor Debertolis


Even in this case the site was photographed with special software to increase the contrast of the digital camera (Olympus patented software) which works perfectly well for archaeological studies.  Seen from the hill of the geoglyph the site of  Bylazora can be found in the image below behind the hill, dark and covered in forest, therefore quite close to the geoglyph.  According to some, under the geoglyph there is the possibility of finding the burial site of one of the ancient Kings of Peoni.  However it cannot be excluded that the site is much older than this.

Fig. 17 - In the background the hill that separates the view between the geoglyph and Bylazora


In either case the aerial shots taken over the geoglyph were very extensive especially with infrared photography.  What we discovered was the artificial nature of the hill which can be considered like a cairn built for a very important person in history seeing its conspicuous dimensions.  The infrared photos show the various reflections of electromagnetic radiation highlighted by the different layers of terrain used.  In this case the different tonalities of colour of the terrain between the hill and the surrounding countryside indicates that the hill was constructed with material not found locally.


Fig. 18 - Above: the Cessna used for the aerial photography. The same type was used in Bosnia and has proven to be very versatile. In the photo below the pilot and flight instructor we collaborated with to take the aerial shots


Fig. 19 - Infrared images of the hill at Kanda. The different colouration of the surrounding terrain is evident in the non cultivated terrain situated to the south of the hill with respect to the hill itself even though the vegetation is the same


As far as the valuation of the emissions of electromagnetic waves from beneath the hill, using various methodologies, we could ascertain that there is a difference depending from where the measurements were taken on the hill.  This variance corresponds to the presence of a cavity inside the hill presumably only a few tens of meters beneath the surface. This last discovery already published in the international literature (here) makes us believe that the hill at Kanda is a cairn with an inner chamber or that the hill was raised on top of an existing hill to form the cairn thus increasing its original height.

The next phase of the research will be to confirm with georadar these existing discoveries.

Paolo Debertolis – January 21, 2015


SBRG is extremely grateful to the mayor of Sveti Nikole, Zoran Tasev, for supporting this research from the beginning with great courage of his convictions. We are glad that we can contribute to his great vision.

A heartfelt thanks to all the people of Sveti Nikole who worked for the success of this research project and in particular to all the technical staff who supported us in all our missions to Kanda.

We owe special gratitude to our scientific assistant and member of the research team, a local researcher Nikola Ristevski whose dedicated work has been our great inspiration.

Special thanks also for the Department of Medical Sciences of the University of Trieste (Italy) for supporting this research and in particular to the director, professor Roberto Di Lenarda.


Translated by Pier Bond


Archaeoacoustic research in Portugal by SBRG

Taga: archaeoacoustics, archaeo-acoustics, Almendres, Escoural, Portela de Modos, low frequencies, rock art, infra-sound, ultrasounds, SBRG, SB Research Group

At the end of September 2014 some members of the SBRG travelled to Portugal in the area of Evora for an archaeoacoustic study on some Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites. Our work was requested by the invitation of the Portuguese archaeologist Fernando Coimbra with whom our group has already shared an archaeoacoustic research expedition in the Hal Saflieni Hypogeum (Malta) in early 2014.

It was not necessary to move around a lot in this area given the incredible concentration of dolmens and stone circles in this one location. Almost all of these sites are in extraordinary conditions and thanks to the cooperation of the local authorities, we were able to  investigate a range of less crowded sites to the better known ones.

However, after a week of full-time work, including a number of surveys carried out during the night, it was only possible to carry out, with substantial effort, on a thorough analysis of a few sites, although we visited, for a quick inspection, many prehistoric or protohistoric archaeological sites. Other areas of interest at this location will eventually be examined in a later mission if the laboratory analysis of the current recordings reveal interesting results.

Thanks to the availability of the area manager of Evora heritage, amongst the list of investigated sites we studied only at one Paleolithic site, the Escoural caves, we were able to perform an accurate analysis nestled among many rock paintings on the cave walls since immemorial time. This opportunity offered to our team enabled us to identify with the place, which, we have to admit, was definitely very impressive.


Fig. 1 - The Escoural caves in the path open to the public


The Escoural cave has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic, i.e. between 100,000 and 50,000 BCE (Before Current Era), and was used as a shelter by Neanderthal man. However, it was also painted by more advanced men in the Middle Paleolithic period, which was is between 30,000 and 10,000 BCE, with geometric figures representing animals.

In the following images you can see pictures of an antelope shot by the forensic camera compared with the images obtained by a normal digital camera, but with resident program to increase the contrast of the photographed subject


Fig. 2 - The Escoural Caves: a beautiful antelope drawn by an artist who lived in the Middle Paleolithic painted close to the entrance of the main hall. Above: image captured with a camera sensitive to infra-red forensics. Below: the same picture, but taken with a digital camera with resident program to increase the contrast  


In the cave there are also some carved geometrical signs made by those ancient communities that lived here thousands of years ago. It is fascinating to think that while they were covered with dust for such a lot of time, the signs of their past existence is are still present.


Fig. 3 - Geometric petroglyphs on a wall of the Escural Caves in the deeper portions of the main room. The photo was taken by infra-red camera


The acoustic surveys in this area, highlighted the lack of resonance and using the compressor sound device for ultrasound (Pettersson D1000X), it was only possible to record the chatter of some bats bothered by our presence, however with the digital recorder we identified a very powerful frequency in the band of inaudible infra-sound.


Fig. 4 - Our surveys conducted in the Escoural Caves


In particular, there is an infrasonic frequency around 12 Hz due to the movement of underground water that seems to dominate many of the prehistoric sites in this region of Portugal.


Fig. 5 - The peak of natural infra-sound. recorded in the silence of the cave


In fact, thanks to the air column inside the cave that acts as a sounding board we can assume that this powerful frequency has also had an effect on the people who lived inside there in the past. Personally, after some hours living in this cavity it can be said that even some of us have, so to speak, been influenced.

Our research was then extended to the more well-known site of the cromlech of Almendres, where we verified if there was a presence of a significant resonance effect at the center of the larger stone circle between megalith 64 and 65 using a percussion instrument. Below is a map of the stone circle.



Fig. 6 - Map of the Cromlech of the Almendres above is visible the larger circle, the lower circle, the smaller circle, however, would seem to be that even the oldest (we are grateful for the map to the Portughese archaeologist Pedro Alvim)


At this site we made a number of sound and photographic surveys at different times of the day and night. The impression of this archaeological site is amazing, especially the light at sunset.


Fig. 7 - The Cromlech of the Almendres at sunset (photo: Nina Earl)


As in other megalithic sites in Europe, we performed a survey of infrasonic sound waves coming from the basement of tectonic origin or caused by the movement of groundwater. For Almendres, particularly in the smaller stone circle, we found infra-sound that were around a frequency of 7-8Hz, similar to what is found in the acropolis of Alatri (Frosinonone - Italy). As occurred in this site, these type of frequencies, have a strong relaxation effect on the human body and the ability to heal from stress. It can therefore be assumed that smaller stone circle of Almendres may have also had a thaumaturgical function.


Fig. 8 - Above: the peak frequencies around 7-8Hz verified by us within the stone circle at lower Almendres. Below: the position of the microphones placed at the center of the stone circle at the time of registration


 Fig. 9 - Panoramic image of the larger stone circle in Almendres(click image to zoom)


An interesting fact is that the granite megaliths emit ultrasounds when hit by sunlight, as revealed by the Pettersson equipment. It's is a phenomenon already discovered by British researcher Don Robbins of the Project Dragon Research Group in the 1970's years in Oxfordshire (U.K.) at the site of Rollright Stones Circle; a stone circle located in the South of England (Ref. "Circle of Silence", London, 1985). Thanks to our more sophisticated equipment, compared to that used more than 30 years ago, we discovered that the sun does not produce ultrasound, but rather the heat of the sun when it hits the granite megaliths does. It's is also quite logical because it's is solar energy heating up the stone that changes the motion of the electrons that pass from one orbit to another which causes this effect.



Fig. 10 - Some striking images of the megaliths of Almendres caught after sunset


This is particularly evident since the ultrasound emission continues even after the sun has gone is down and the stone is still hot. In the case of Almendres we verified that the sound is equally powerful for more than one hour after sunset. In the same way if the sun is blocked or shines from a short time the stone must first eliminate the cold and possible moisture accumulated during the night before the effect can be further observed.

We decided to call this phenomenon with the suggestive name of "singing" of the megaliths, because in ideal conditions it really develops a frequency very close to that which is audible. It is also possible that in ancient times the population living without the presence of noise of modern civilization, without a hearing volume deterioration from various machine tools or transportation, without the noise of loud music and in perfect harmony or connection with nature, they could possibly have felt this vibration. Especially when it came to people of  young age and with an auditory organ in perfect condition.


Fig. 11 - The research for sources of ultrasound in the cromlech of Almendres by Pettersson D1000X device


Our hypothesis were based specifically on Almeadres where the granite megaliths were shaped with a flat side facing toward the centre of the stone circle, almost like an old loud speaker with the side curved outward. The structural composition appears to have a double function, one, reflecting the sound of a source placed at the centre of the cromlech and two, allow those who are placed at the centre of the stone circle to perceive the "song" of the stones when hit by the sun. The effect would be especially interesting when the megaliths were correctly positioned, not like now that they have been largely moved or oriented differently from their original location. But we must also remember that they have almost been 8000 years at their current location.


Fig. 12 - The research team that conducted the research is FROM archeoacustica Almendres. From left to right: Nina Earl, scientific assistant, Paolo Debertolis, physical anthropologist, Fernando Coimbra, archaeologist


The same phenomenon was also found in the megalithic site of Portela de Mogos, a very little known, but very well preserved cromlech that has given us a lot of data for backing up our hypothesis.


Fig. 13 - A panoramic image of the megalithic site of Portela de Mogos (click image to zoom)


This stone circle is still surrounded by a forest of oaks and was discovered in 1966, but has been excavated and restored in its entirety as early as 1995. Its layout is shaped like a star and various megaliths have a flat face, carved by its builders. On some of them there are also engravings with lunar and solar motifs.


Fig. 14 - The good state of conservation of Portela de Modos stone circle



 Fig. 15 - The research for ultrasounds at the megaliths of Portela de Modos


We also conducted the archaeacoustic surveys at the standing stones of Almendres at a certain distance from the stone circle of the same name, but correctly oriented in the equinoxes with the corresponding cromlech.


Fig. 16 - The menhir of Almendres (click image to zoom)


 Fig. 17 - The menhir of Almendres during measurements


There have also been surveys undertaken at some dolmens of which we have yet to assess the implications from the point of view of the local natural acoustic phenomena. Unfortunately, some dolmens were transformed into Catholic churches in the sixteenth century, misrepresenting the function and changing the original plans.



Fig. 18 - An ancient dolmens converted to a chapel at the time of the Inquisition (Chapel Anta do San Brissos)


In particular, we focused on the famous dolmen Anta Grande do Zambujeiro, one of the largest in the world with dolmen stones that make up the architecture of the weight of several tons. This site is dated at the beginning of the 4th millennium BCE and unfortunately was uncovered with the capstone thrown some distance from the monument (see map below). Although there's now is an artificial covering built by archaeologists it is still possible to verify the presence of resonance phenomena in its interior.



Fig. 19 – Map of Anta Grande do Zambujeiro dolmen. Key: A burial chamber, B removed cover monolith of dolmen, C shot down menhir (courtesy of Portuguese Heritage Service)


 Fig. 20 - The megalith that served as a cover (point B on the map) of Anta Grande do Zambujeiro dolmen thrown farther and now broken



Fig. 21 - The access corridor to the dolmen and coverage by Portuguese archaeologists put there  to protect the structure


Fig. 22 - The main room of the dolmen view from the top (point A on the map)


This dolmen has an access corridor to the central chamber that is no longer used by the public. For these reasons, the microphones were lowered down by us.


Fig. 23 - It was not possible to access the main chamber of the dolmen with microphones, except through the opening top, with the cables falling



We also carried out tests with infra-red and ultraviolet camera with different types of light at different angles on some engravings carved on megaliths of Almendres (rock art). The results were exciting and will be presented next year in Caceres Congress (Spain) at the end of August 2015.


 Fig. 24 - Stone n. 65 of the standing stone circle of Almendres and how it looks during the day highlighting its carvings during the night with a high concentration of light and the use of a forensic camera. Finally, the complete design of the incisions present on its surface (courtesy of Portuguese Heritage Service)


Given the extensive collaboration with the local authority and the interesting discoveries on archeoacoustics, another mission is planned next year with a date yet to be determined.

Paolo Debertolis – October 30, 2014



Special thanks from SB Research Group to the Director of Heritage Service of Evora area, Antonio Carlos Silva, for his kindness and availability for supporting our research.


Edited by Pier Bond


Confirmed by SBRG all previous archaeoacoustic surveys at Alatri (Italy)

Tags: archaeoacoustics, archaeo-acoustics, Alatri, polygonal walls, low frequencies, infrasound, SBRG, SB Research Group

At the end of August 2014 we undertook our final archaeoacoustical survey at the archaeological site of Alatri. After a year of research totaling three visits, we confirmed data previously collected using the acoustic survey digital recorder, and made some new discoveries.  Using a Resonance Variable Camera (RVC) developed by new SBRG archaeoacoustics researcher, Daniele Gullà.

We already had experience using this equipment, when undertaking research at the Hypogeum of Cividale del Friuli (here and here). The RVC recently received a quality certification for scientific use. In this study the RVC was used to graphically confirm the presence of very intense infrasound in the Acropolis at Alatri, which was also present inside the second walled circle in the town. This confirms the importance of acoustic data obtained using our ultra-sensitive microphones.

The Resonance Variable Camera is a special type of camera designed to see both infrared and ultraviolet bands with the aid of a computer. Using dedicated software, it is capable of making optically visible subsonic vibrations between 0.1Hz to 12Hz, frequencies that not usually perceived by the human eye. This equipment has been used in the military field.  In Alatri when viewed from the hill in front of the Acropolis the whole city vibrated in a subsonic way, in contrast to the surrounding mountains. The largest concentration of low-frequency vibrations were visible from inside the acropolis and inside the "navel", located to the north of the church which was built over the megalithic temple. Below are several images taken with different photographic equipment.

The first image shows Alatri taken from the hill opposite, the contrast was increased using resident software found inside our professional Olympus E-5 digital camera. Pay attention to the tree foliage on the bottom left of the picture.


 Fig. 1 – Picture of Alatri taken from the opposite hill using a digital camera


The second image was taken using an infrared digital camera the same and angle as the first. This time, the tree foliage is white because the leaves absorb infrared rays.


 Fig. 2 – The same shot as above, but using an infrared camera


The third image is the most interesting, it was taken with the Resonance Variable Camera (RVC) it consists of the standard deviation of thirty images taken from the same view.

In it the vibrant part of the hill, or rather the whole hill is colored red, so too is the tree foliage in the lower left corner, this is caused by the wind moving the leaves and branches. The surrounding hills appear black because they are not subject to the same vibration as Alatri hill.


 Fig. 3 – Alatri hill from the same point of view, but shot with the Resonance Variable Camera (RVC): The red color indicates a frequency of vibration which is approximately 9-10Hz, as can be seen from the reference scale positioned under the main image


This data is comparable to that taken by the ultra-sensitive microphones and recorded by two different Tascam digital recorders, produced by TEAC Japanese company. There is a large volume of infrasound frequency vibration that affects the whole Alatri hill in the range of 8-9Hz. In addition there is a frequency of around 32Hz, in the audible field band that we found in previous missions. This most likely represents a harmonic of the main vibration.



 Fig. 4 – Plots of the vibrations coming from underground taken at difference times inside Alatri Cathedral. The foundations of this church which was dedicated to St. Paul was made from the walls of the ancient pagan temple. In these graphs the frequency peaks of around 8-11Hz and 30-32Hz are visible


Thanks to the Resonance Variable Camera, we also observed other interesting phenomena at Alatri. For example, there are also other frequencies of vibration affecting the whole acropolis and in particular the cathedral. It seems that there is a simultaneous peak frequencies below 4Hz capable of generating fields of vibration in the air.



 Fig. 5 - View of Alatri in the blue-violet colour palette as taken by the Resonance Variable Camera. Indicated by the arrows the resonance field at 2 Hz formed above the acropolis and in particular over the Cathedral



The following are some audible examples of the vibrations from the basement and how they are perceived in the church built over the temple. It is better to listen to this sound with stereo headphones with a large component of bass frequencies. If you listen to this in such way the sound file (here) is good for relaxing promoting concentration and meditation. It has a frequency of 8Hz with some harmonic frequencies in multiples between 8hz up to 32Hz (i.e. frequencies tuned to the vibration of the planet Earth).

The following MP3 file contains frequencies in the infrasonic range between 8Hz and 20Hz (frequencies above 20Hz were cut), these frequencies were then transposed over 20Hz to bring them into the audible range (here).

This same "pulsing" sound was also bought into the visible range using the Resonance Variable Camera. This was captured in the area above the so-called “navel” of the Acropolis, which is deeply immersed in the rock hill on which the pagan temple was built. Part of this rock still protrudes to the north of church built below the blocks of the temple (video). This rock works as a transducer for the vibrations coming from  underground and submits them perfectly inside the Cathedral of Alatri. Interesting that the pulse vibration is not transmitted to the blocks of the original pagan temple, now basement of the church. Placed in the image below it is possible to see that the blocks of the ancient temple to the Resonance Variable Camera appear black, indicating the lack of vibration, as opposed to the underlying rock. This is due to the fact that the blocks are fitted together, but without a binder. This fact dampens the vibrations from underground and confirms the seismic character of this building that is still standing after thousands of years and many earthquakes.



 Fig. 6 - Above: image of the original blocks of pagan temple without cement positioned  to the north of the Acropolis. Below: the same image shot by the Resonance Variable Camera. The megalithic blocks appear black in colour because they do not transmit the vibrations coming from below the ground


 Fig. 7 - The graph (0.1-12Hz) of the low frequency (subsonic) peaks detectable in the navel area of the Acropolis



 Fig. 8 - Above: the Minor Gate of the Acropolis. Below: the sequence of images at the Minor Gate as taken by the Resonance Variable Camera. Clearly visible is the vibration found in this place, albeit to a lesser degree than at the “navel” of the Acropolis. Inside the gate the outline of a person can be seen sitting on the steps, they appear in a different color as they are vibrating at a different frequency


 Fig. 9 - The graph of the frequencies present at the Minor Gate which are slightly different to those found at the navel of the acropolis


From what we have seen, these subsonic vibrations do not create a problem for the recipient. Rather, as with other sacred places, it can be assumed there existence is precisely the reason why the Acropolis and the temple, were built in that location as opposed to the neighbouring hills. Anyone who undertakes prayer or meditation inside the church has the potential to feel the effect of these subsonic vibrations, whose influence could ultimately lead to altered states of consciousness, or mystical experiences (usually only experienced after many years of training as with Buddhist monks).

To test this claim, we proceeded to test the depth of meditation that can be reached in a short timeframe with a small number of volunteers, seated on the so-called "navel" of the Acropolis (or inside the church). This navel forms part of the rock located to the north of the Cathedral, on which the ancient pagan temple was originally located and later became St. Paul's Cathedral, the Cathedral of Alatri. Part of this rock protrudes from the walls of the church basement, part is located deeply within the hillside and as such superbly transmits the subsonic vibrations coming from below the ground.

The depth of relaxation reached by the volunteers was also examined using the Resonance Variable Camera (RVC). This is possible by measuring the subtle body vibration, which looks at the response of the vestibular organ (inner ear), responsible for regulating the balance of the human body, and spacial awareness. If the subject in question is stressed some imperceptible bodyvibrations of his body increase and can be immediately detected by the RVC camcorder. However, if the subject is relaxed its vibrations diminish to become imperceptible even to the equipment. This last state is reached only in a state of deep meditation or in the state of vigil prayer.

In the first image below, there is a volunteer sitting on the rock beginning to concentrate. The camera framing the subject immediately notes that they are vibrating at a higher frequency than the rock (according to the scale of reference, the blue-green color is indicative of a frequency of 5-6Hz). Of note is that this volunteer was already in a state of relaxation and low stress having spent several hours on the acropolis.



 Fig. 10 - The subject under examination starts from a state of relaxation having spent several hours on the acropolis


After few minutes of meditation, the subject begins to vibrate at a slower and slower frequency indicating a deep meditative state. After a few minutes of concentration whilst present on the rock, they vibrate at such a low frequency (less than one Hz) it becomes difficult for the camera to distinguish them from the rock.


 Fig. 11 - After a few minutes, the volunteer’s frequency of vibration is so low, it becomes indistinguishable from the rock when viewed through the Variable Resonance Imaging Camera


It is an experience that works in the best way in trained subjects for prayer or meditation, but also visible in younger subjects and certainly not trained as we also occurred to a 9 year old girl. In these last subject you can only get a state of relaxation very pronounced, but which surely acts as an anti-stress.


 Fig. 12 - The rock placed in the navel of the Acropolis leads volunteer subjects into a coherent state during meditation. The frequency average varies from person to person and is dependent on the length of time they are exposed to the vibration


The Resonance Variable Camera is an extraordinary device because it is able to provide an indication of the mental state of the subject by monitoring the vibrations from the vestibular apparatus, which is directly influenced by the mental state of the person in question.

But the use of the RVC technique has also shown how ancient places revered as sacred have an influence on the state of consciousness of those visiting them for prayer or meditation.



  Fig. 13 - Above: the image of Alatri Cathedral viewed from the inside. In the foreground is the researcher Daniele Gullà with the RVC at work. Below: the image of the vibrations from below the earth (red colour) taken with the RVC camera that affects the church. This image is the composite of many shots



 Fig. 14 - The entire church and the people sitting inside it seem to get into a state of harmonic resonance (somewhere between 0.1 Hz and 3 Hz) when concentrated in meditation or prayer



 Fig. 15 - Inside the church all psychophysiological data issued by the RVC software seems to confirm that states of aggression and stress are remarkably low. The volunteer subjects in meditation can easily achieve a deep state of concentration reaching a consistent theta wave state without interruption



 Fig. 16 - Outside the church on the opposite side of the Acropolis, the physicochemical parameters measured from the RVC equipment appear different, and the relaxing effect of the place seems more nuanced compared to inside the perimeter of the temple


In the appendix of this article,  our research was followed by a television crew (Sydonia Production), who are developing a format dedicated to the "Italian Mysterious Towns" on behalf of Focus TV due to be presented to public in the winter season 2014-15.  The filming was quite tiring as it took place during the night, as human activities have much less effect on the sensitive instruments.





 Fig. 17 – Some moments of the footage taken by the television crew during the surveys carried at night on the north side of the Acropolis


In the coming months, after the conclusion of data analysis, we will produce a scientific paper to be published in the international literature that summarize the phenomena reported in this extraordinary site.

Paolo Debertolis, Daniele Gullà - September 15, 2014


Previous articles on research Alatri here and here

We would like to thank Don Antonio Castagnacci for his availability to grant us the opportunity to make recordings, including inside the Basilica - Cathedral of St. Paul (Cathedral of Alatri) and for his help, also to his collaborator Mr. Sisto Macciocca.

A special thanks to the professionalism and the excellent cooperation shown throughout the duration of the shooting by Sydonia Production srl, in particular Daniela Pompei and the director and author of the program, Luca Trovellesi Cesana, and all the members of the group (Pietro Di Stefano, cameraman, DOP - Alessandro Marconi, cameraman - Matias Corvaro, production manager - Isaac Favazza, sound engineer) who produced the documentary about our research in Alatri.

We also thank in particular the independent researcher Ornello "Paolo" Tofani for the documentation and the extraordinary support provided for our research for more than a year. Without him, none of this would have been possible.


 Edited by Nina Earl


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