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Archaeoacoustic analysis using new TRV camera (Variable Resonance Camera) technology

TAG: archaeo-acoustics, archaeoacoustics, hypogeum, Cividale del Friuli, resonance, ultrasound, shamanic drum, TRV technology, SBRG, SB Research Group

SBRG research group recently begun a collaboration with researcher Daniele Gullà and Florentina Richeldi, to undertake a deeper analysis of previous results obtained using the latest TRV technology (Variable Resonance Camera). This technology was used for the first time in the hypogeum of Cividale del Friuli, to evaluate the resonance effect of some of the chambers located on two different levels.

The resonance characteristics of this hypogeum was established over several sessions during the research that began in early 2013 and later published in the international scientific literature with two peer-reviewed papers (here and here). The results seem to confirm the ritual origin of the conformation of the Hypogeum and not just as a storage of funerary urns, a hypothesis proposed and currently supported by some historians. In contrast, our hypothesis is that the underground structure is connected to a Mother Goddess cult, given the strong influence on the local population of the rites originating from Balkan immigrants since Neolithic times, recognized by historians. This could potentially backdate the construction of this ancient temple considerably.

Wanting to build on the studies carried out, we decided to conduct further research by monitoring the state of consciousness of people during ritual singing or chanting of mantras tuned to the resonance frequency of the chambers.

In the coming months, monitoring via an EEG (electroencephalograph) portable device in collaboration with the service of Neurophysiology of the General Hospital of Trieste will be undertaken as an extension of research in this field, which has already been published in the international literature (here).

Before proceeding with this however, we wanted to explore the altered states of consciousness that can be achieved through the resonance phenomenon sought by the builders of the hypogeum. For this reason, a collaboration with researchers Daniel Gullà and Florentina Richeldi, who have a wide experience in the use of TRV technology, was begun to test the level of consciousness of some volunteers using this new method of analysis. The results from this technique will be particularly useful to compare with what the EEG equipment that will be used in the coming months.

The “technology TRV” (Resonance Variable Camera) needs a little explaining in order to understand how it was applied in this experiment and how it might be applied within the archaeoacoustic field.

As a premise, it is important to know that there is a direct correlation between emotional and functional states of the human body with the precise parameters of controlled motion reflection. Until recent times quantitative parameters and efficient information of the movement of the human body were not established. Bernstein and Mira Lopez (psychodiagnostic miokinetics) studied the micro-mobility of the human body and found that it represented a sophisticated mathematical problem. For example, it has been shown that the vertical balance of the human head is controlled by the vestibular system, and they described it as a reflex function. But the balance of the human head controlled by the vestibular system can also be considered as an extension of locomotor activity (micro-mobility of the head). The analysis of micro-mobility of the head and of other types of reflexes which control the motility of the human body are able to provide a lot of information on the state of consciousness of the examined subject. From the physical point of view, the mechanical oscillations of the head are a vibrational process, whose parameters provide a quantitative correlation between energy and mobility of the object. Information on the integral parameters of mobility of the head can be obtained by using video analysis TRV (Variable Resonance Imaging Camera) technology, which provides quantitative information of the periodic movements of any part of the imaged object.

In the image provided on the primary monitor which are represented by pseudo-colours, each point represents the parameters of mobility in the frequency of the examined subject. As in other biomedical imaging (ultrasound, NMR, IR, X -ray), the TRV is a method of image analysis that is based on data of micro-mobility models and introduces a new term, emotional vestibular reflex or “reflection of vestibular energy” (REV) which indicates that the coordination of the movement depends on the emotional and physiological state of mind and that is affected by these factors.

To date, the system has been primarily been used in the security and anti-terrorism field. People in an abnormal state of mind (agitated or stressed) show a different color in the video image creating around them a kind of aura that can facilitate their identification in the middle of a group of people, for example in the hall of an airport.

The same principle is already used in medicine for the early diagnosis of certain diseases which imperceptibly alter the general state of the patient. The human vestibular system receives information from almost all districts of the physiological organism, from the cardiovascular system to body temperature. This information is used to support the physiological homeostasis of the human body, and any significant signal given by some diseases or emotional stress disturbs this equilibrium.

The software program connected to the TRV technology allows analysis of stress or other levels of biological parameters, which are important for regular monitoring of mental/emotional balance.

The algorithm of the stress equation includes different filters, settings and adjustments which can be configured within the system software. In particular by exploiting the perception of the system of micro-movements of the left and right part of the body and how its correlates to vibrations in the examined subject. A high level of stress in the subject corresponds to particular states ofasymmetrical vibrations in the body which are clearly detectable by the system and signaled to the operator.


 Fig. 1 - The TRV system used in the experiment


The TRV image analyzer system is used to monitor vibrations in normal or altered states of consciousness, the so-called Human Energy Field (Human Energetic Field - HEF). In a little square on the PC screen the image of the subject is shown using a spectrum of false colours, with a graph corresponding to the initial position. Later the software shows, through the variation of colors in the image, a transition to an altered state of consciousness, sometimes reaching up to the total disappearance of the image itself or to a change of colour to a single color tone. The change from the initial multicoloured to a single color state indicates that the vibrations are passed by a wide spectrum of frequencies to a narrow spectrum, indicating a situation of coherence of the examined subject.

In conclusion, we can say that the detected spectrum of frequency changes completely when the examined subject enters into an altered state of consciousness. All the parameters are analyzed and stored from moment to moment by the cameras software. At the end of the trial a "report" can be generated showing the spectrum of vibrations, that shows the depth of meditative state and the fluctuations of the intensity of the vibrations of the body of the examined subject. In the pictures below there is a distribution of horizontal colored stripes around the vibrating objects (rows represent obtained individual frequencies). They horizontally represent the spectral distribution of vibrations in a band between 0.1 and 10 Hz according to a scale of pseudo colors from purple to red (shown below).


 Fig. 2 - Images converted to a scale of pseudo colours in relation to the frequency in Hz


The vibrations generated in various parts of the human body normally vary continuously both in amplitude and in frequency. On the PC screen a large panel shows the image of the person and around him appear horizontal lines of various colours and lengths that are the result of the method applied to the vibrations detected. The vibration frequency is shown by the color of the line, according to the colour scale shown in the image above. Another panel in the bottom left of the PCs screen, shows three graphs of the spectral characteristics.

In conclusion, this whole method is therefore aimed at studying the functional state of the human body directed towards the recognition of the emotional state. The algorithms for determining the emotional state are based on a system of mathematical statistics, principles of coordination of movement, and the logic of behavioral psychology and comparative tests.

Back to the results of the experiment carried out on April 13th 2014, which was carried out in  chamber D of the hypogeum, located on the third level down after the central hall located on the first level for comparison to the chamber D, marked with the letter A on the map.

 Fig. 3 – Map of the Hypogeum of Cividale del Friuli


Two singers, one male and one female positioned themselves within chamber D to provide coverage of the entire frequency range. However, as noted in our previous research only the male voice was able to solicit the structure using a mantra chanted with monotone tuned to the chambers resonant frequency around 103Hz.

The audio recording control was performed according to the SBRG Standard for archaeoacoustics (here). In this case the equipment consisted of a high dynamic range recorder, extended both in the field of ultrasound and infrasound with a sampling frequency rate of 192 kHz (Tascam DR-680).
Condenser microphones with phantom power with such a wide dynamic range and flat response at different frequencies (Sennheiser MKH 3020, frequency response of 10Hz to 50,000 Hz) with shielded cables (XLR Mogami Gold Edition) and gold plated connectors were also used.

The microphones were placed on the other side of the chamber in respect of the singers position and mounted on two tripods (see Figure 5).

Given the small size of the chamber D, the recording volume was adjusted to a value of- 9dB in order to avoid recording distortions.

The camera used in this TRV system has a common CCD backlit, with a three MegaPixel sensor. The protective anti-aliasing filter was removed to extend the vision beyond visible light into the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) range. It has a system of rotating LEDs from infrared to visible which generates ultraviolet light and synchronises with the rotation of the light at will from 1 Hz to 10 KHz . There is a connection to a PC, but there is also the capability to save videos to internal flash memory. The lens is a 25 mm quartz-fluorite with passband about from 200nm to 1800nm


 Fig. 4 - The camera used in the experiment


The camera apparatus was placed at the same side of the microphones on a tripod, while the system software has been loaded on a laptop PC positioned at the side of the chamber.




 Fig. 5 – In the image the examined subjects placed in the nodes of resonance (location to get the best effect of resonance in the chamber) and the operator of TRV system on your computer


 Fig. 6 – The frequency graph recorded during the experiment. There is a high peak around 101-103Hz caused by the voice that is reinforced by the resonance phenomenon. The other harmonics of the voice are at a significantly a lower level


 Fig. 7 – The TRV camera was positioned on a tripod located on the other side of the room to the singers. It is visible LED generating IR and UV in front of it


At the beginning of the experiment the TRV system, placed in front of the examined subjects, reported a baseline normal situation in front of the camera.




 Fig. 8 – The basic aspect at the beginning of the experiment before intoning the mantra. In the foreground the female singer (a little part of the front), with the male singer in the background


After a few seconds from the beginning of the experiment there is a background noise between 2Hz and 7 Hz after the triggering the vocal resonance, which saturates the measurement of the environment.



 Fig. 9 – The background noise (2-7 Hz) after the resonance phenomenon begins (few minutes) which saturates the environment of chamber D


Subsequently, the frequency is lowered (0.1 Hz and 4Hz) signaling the balance and homogeneity of the entire body of the subjects positioned in chamber D. This has led to a gradual disappearance of the figure at the bottom of the chamber, with the figure closest to the camera (more easily detectable) started to become opaque.





 Fig. 10 – In these images is evident the progressive inability of the system to distinguish the figure at the bottom of the chamber from its surrounding environment, that is vibrating to a synchronous manner to the subjects concerned



 Fig. 11 – The homogeneity of vibration between 0.1 Hz and 4 Hz , present throughout the environment of chamber D, after a few minutes of stress by the resonance phenomenon, the figure disappears completely from the bottom of the chamber. So only the red marks of the reflectors on the jacket of the same subject remain which are evident only for the refractive effect of the same and the movement of the subject


So the software reported the transition to an altered state of consciousness, first veering to one shade of color, at which point the whole room began to vibrate at the same frequency as the subjects in question, until the image totally disappeared. The change to the single color indicates that the vibrations are passed by a wide spectrum of frequencies to a narrower spectrum, indicating a situation of coherence of all and towards a contemporary altered state of consciousness of the examined subjects, but also accompanied by vibration of the chamber that is tuned to the same frequency of vibration of the subjects under consideration. Which represents an unexpected result.

This altered state of consciousness was achieved by simply repeating a mantra for about 8 minutes, as documented by the audio recording.

The test carried out in a similar way to the chamber on the first level did not reveal any step contrary to altered states of consciousness.

In conclusion, the power of the rituals performed in ancient times in the chambers of the Hypogeum of Cividale del Friuli utilizing its resonance phenomenon triggered by a male voice (as shown here) or by means of a percussion instrument (here), is still today able to change the states of consciousness of those present. The objective findings observed by the RTV instrumentation represent something alredy detached from subjective perception of the people considered and variously reported by the protagonists of our previous research.

Ultimately the instrumentation used confirms that a "mystical" state can be reached after a few minutes by those who are subjected to the resonance phenomenon inside the chambers of the hypogeum.

Paolo Debertolis, Daniele Gullà, Florentina Richeldi – 16 aprile 2014


A sincere thank you from the SBRG research group to the owner of Cividale del Friuli Hypogeum, Mr. Gaetano Bront, for his helpfulness and kindness in allowing us to enter even at night his ancient monument for our experiments. Heartfelt thanks also to Mr. Federico Morandini, who patiently gave us the keys of the hypogeum to conduct our research. .A sincere thank you to Nina Earl, our scientific assistant, for her support in the drawing up of this paper.




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