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Observations and methodological reasoning in the sacred places of Trentino (North Italy).

TAG:archaeoacoustics, archeo-acoustics, archeology, vibrations, infrasound, anthropology, Trentino, Val Canali, Primiero Valley, Castel Pietra, myths, legends, SBRG, SB Research Group, Super Brain Research Group


Thanks to the new SBRG headquarters at Passo Gobbera in Trentino (North Italy) and the guesthouse on the ground floor of the same building (almost completed after a two-year renovation period), some members of our research group have started using this structure as a base to examine the sacred sites in this area.

Unfortunately, the conference room, located in the same building, which is also the local Astronomical Observatory, has not yet been completed and therefore the courses, meetings and conferences organized and scheduled here during the present year will necessarily be postponed to the next year.




Fig. 1 - The Astronomical Observatory of Passo Gobbera (TN) which is also the new SBRG headquarters.




Fig. 2 - The remote control telescope located in the Observatory dome.


The advantage of having a series of new rooms to stay, to place the equipment and to immediately examine the data collected during the research day on the computer, has allowed us to be well organized for research in this area.

One of our theories that we are testing utilising archaeoacoustics and imaging techniques, is that the myths and legends connected with some sacred sites are not purely due to superstition or ignorance. Often such stories have a basis of truth, but filtered through the imagination of those who transmitted them, partially modifying the initial message or embellishing them with mythical details.

It is our opinion, that some mystical or fearful experiences (feeling that something supernatural is about to happen), occur principally as the result of altered states of consciousness directly influenced by physical phenomena (magnetic fields and low frequency acoustic vibrations). Such physical phenomena appear to be concentrated at sacred sites revered for millennia.

Having the possibility to immediately verify our results thanks to our carefully chosen equipment, we have decided to develop a new study protocol in Trentino (North Italy), repeatable by other researchers, and also applicable at other sites during our missions in other European countries.

In particular, three members of our research group, prof. Paolo Debertolis, medical doctor, dr. Natalia Tarabella, architect, and dr. Randa Romero, psychologist, began a collection of archaeological and photographic data and environmental imaging, relating to local, oral and written historical sources, which can be used to establish if there is any correlation with the data from our instruments. This has given rise to a different interpretation of the myths examined in a more scientific perspective without rejecting any initial hypothesis, even if they appear to be mere fantasies or superstition.




Fig. 3 - The working group in Trentino during the analysis of the region.




The problem of dealing with historical sources, even when it comes to myths, is not a trivial matter. History is not a set of things already given regardless of who observes them. On the contrary, it is the subject who studies history that defines history. They look and investigate, because there is no investigation without the source and there is no source without investigation.

When we talk about history, in reality, we are talking about
historiography, that is, what reported by those who, through direct or indirect testimonies, objects or writings, try to summarize what happened in the past. But if this past has left no sign or testimony of its passage it is as if it had never existed.

The story transmitted through
myths and legends is investigation and narration and can not exist regardless of our attentive gaze. The story of the myth is not "is", but "made". So if the center of a historical research is not the object, but the subject, and history does not exist without the historian and the researcher, it is clear that the historical investigation is given by the tools and the competence related to the subject that makes the investigation.

In the case of archaeoacoustics, the instruments are represented by recording techniques of natural phenomena, both acoustic and electromagnetic, possibly still present in the place where a myth arose. It is known that geological changes, responsible for magnetic fields and local acoustic phenomena, do not have a short existence like human life, but can persist for very long times locally and can still be present thousands of years after they have been empirically detected by ancients.




Fig. 4 - The evaluation of the presence of any infrasounds using ultrasensitive microphones and high-level digital recorder is now a common practice in our research.




In the historical research methodology, the historian starting his story must use as a tool the look and the look must look at men and, in rare cases, directly attend the events recorded by our equipment, to be eyewitnesses.

Another device in our possession is the
historical memory of those who have collected these myths. But the most important tool is the word, which the historian and researcher uses to ask correct questions to witnesses.

The next methodological step is
listening, that is the testimony of those who have experienced unusual phenomena in the sacred site or of those who have collected the testimony of those who have lived that fact. Those who listen (us), are also those who read what reported by texts that previously may have answered the questions that at this point we could pose to witnesses.

The last tool we use in our research is the
logic. Scientific logic comes in handy when the eyes see one thing and the voice tells another. So our purpose is to examine the data using logic, but without discarding any data because it is inconsistent.

Therefore, there are
four fundamental elements that we use in the protocol of our research, the careful look of our instrumentation, the word with which we interrogate those who have had particular experiences in a particular sacred site, the listening / reading the data collected in this way and the logic to set aside incongruent data or highlight consistent data. By removing even one of these elements, we will have a search impaired or without authority.

The more research authors are able to make the best use of these tools (in this case we, but also any other researcher who follows our method), the more authors can demonstrate their
competence. The competence is the ability to interpret and enhance the collected data.

Competence is not something that is acquired overnight, but is acquired through the practice of the inquiry itself. It takes time and effort. Thus, after about eight years research and 33 publications in the field of archaeoacoustics in international literature until May 2018, we can state that we have achieved a certain expertise in archaeoacoustic research.

Competence is the ability to value the signs left by the past. You can witness an eyewitness to unusual physical phenomena at a givensite, but if you do not have the specific technical knowledge, you will not understand anything about what is happening. Hence solid scientific knowledge is derived from competence. Therefore
competence is the ability to give value to the sign of the past. And the sign can be anything: an object, but also an event or a document.

But what is a document? It's what happened over time. And when an event happens, it always leaves signs. The eye sees them and the author of the scientific investigation must focus his attention on these signs. And it is because of its competence that gives that sign a meaning and a value. The document is therefore a sign that is enhanced by a competent view, which is the gaze of the author of the scientific investigation. It is clear that without this look the document would not have weighed almost until it did not exist.

The document can be an ancient myth, a rock or even a symbol engraved on the stone (eg a carved cup). It is only because of the competent views that the historical document can be discovered. Very often, even unfortunately in the historical context, we try to pass off the document for something that exists regardless of our look. This is wrong from the hermeneutical point of view (exact sense of the signs of the past). The document does not exist except through the eyes that see it, examine it, question it, study it.




Fig. 5 - The immediate analysis of the data collected through the open source program "Audacity" in the version for Linux allows with some confidence to be able to identify interesting frequencies.




After this complex discussion on our research methodology, some practical examples lived personally: the myth of the "guane", sort of witches or fairies (depending on the point of view) present in Primiero Valley, but also in other Trentino valleys, even if under another name.

According to legend, these witches lived at the foot of Castel Pietra, a castle, now reduced to ruins built at the entrance of Val Canali to defend itself from the barbarian invasions. Initially it was only a military defense point (Castrum Petrae) against Attila, then turned into a real castle by the Episcopal domination of Feltre and then later entered into possession of the local feudal lord who is still its owner. He underwent several destructions and was finally abandoned in 1675.




Fig. 6 - The ruins of Castel Pietra, located at the foot of the Dolomites, dominate the entrance to the Val Canali.





Placed on a huge boulder dragged by the glaciers, it dominates Primiero Valley from the North-East, undoubtedly it was a place of power. But the myth speaks above all of these witches who lived in this place prior to the construction of the castle. So a place that has always been considered by the tradition to have supernatural characteristics.




Fig. 7 - A sort of altar at the base of the enormous rock on which Castel Pietra was built.




Fig. 8 - Some suggestive images of the wood at the base of the rock above which the castle was built and where the "Guane" were supposed to live.




Already the initial examination of the archaeoacoustic of the place has confirmed that there is a particular natural frequency of infrasound able to create a state of restlessness (18Hz) in those who remain long in the forest at the base of the castle. This proves that even in this case the myth that arises in this place has its scientific / anthropological base.





Fig. 9 - 18Hz to -50db (average) found at the base of the huge rock where the castle was built.



Fig. 10 - The iron staircase that makes it difficult to reach the ruins of the castle.




Anyone who had done a ritual in the past in this place would have created a strong emotion to those who had attended gaining prestige to the creator/shaman. At this point it is easy to think of some kind of female shaman, considered witch or fair by the local people, that in ancient times may have performed some rituals in this place generating in the bystanders a sense of fear or anguish, creating the myth of witches / fairies lived in this place.

In the coming months we will publish the results achieved.


SBRG - 6 September 2018

Edited by Nina Earl




Letter to our supporters

TAG: archaeoacoustics, archaeo-acoustics, archaeology, anthropology, vibrations, infrasuond, vibrational energy, conferences, SBRG, SB Research Group, Super Brain Research Group.

After a long period of silence, which we undertook to avoid fuelling an attack by our detractors in the scientific field, by providing them with advance information on our initiatives, we resume describing much that has been accomplished in our scientific research for the benefit of our many supporters.

The amount of support is evident from the impressive array of visits to our site and the considerable number of downloads of our publications from other websites on which we are present (such as from all over the world.

An important moment for us last year was the separation from the University of Trieste as a patronage and the establishment of an autonomous research body as a non-profit association recognized by the Italian State, and therefore operating throughout the EU, and the location of our headquarters in our offices at the Astronomical Observatory of Passo Gobbera in the province of Trento.


Fig. 1 - Our headquarters at the Astronomical Observatory of Passo Gobbera (TN).


It is obvious at this point, that the interception of funds to develop our research has become a crucial topic, as well as the dissemination of our results to the public outside scientific congresses, in order to increase donations to our institution.

We remind you that on the occasion of the tax return in Italy (only if you pay taxes in Italy) it is possible to donate the 5 x 1000 to our non-profit organization by writing our tax code number, which you can find on the left in all our web pages in Italian in the appropriate box on the tax return form and signing the authorization.



Fig. 2 - Where to place your signature if you want to support us with the 5 x thousand if you pay taxes in Italy.



We have also started an informative work of conferences around Italy and whole Europe that we have subsequently placed on the web.

In particular we presented our results at the International Conference "Archaeoacoustics III" in Tomar (Portugal) on 5-8 October 2017 with four presentations on our research undertaken in the period 2015-2016.



 Fig. 3 - Our presentations at the Conference on archaeoacoustics in Portugal in October 2017.



Furthermore, in the period between March - May 2018, we made several conferences in Parma, Orvieto, Bolsena and San Panfilo D'Ocre (Italy) in which we presented the results of our research obtained at Gobekli Tepe (Turkey), Alatri and Apuan Alps (Italy), Malta, Jordan and Yemen (before the current conflict). The speakers in this regard were professor Paolo Debertolis and the architect Natalia Tarabella. We were moved by the enthusiasm that welcomed us from the public and for the kindness and availability of those who invited us.



Fig. 4 - The conference held in Parma (Italy) in March 2018 as guests of the Galileo association.



Fig. 5 - The conference performed in the magnificent congress hall created in the deconsecrated church in the former monastery of San Panfilo d'Ocre (L’Aquila, Italy), guests of the Panta Rei - Conacreis Abruzzo dell'Aquila Association and the Archaeological Group of Castelvecchio Subequo.



Fig. 6 - The presentation of the architect Tarabella at the 20th Heritage for Planet Earth Conference in Florence (Italy).


In this period some of our members have left our group and others have been added in a physiological exchange that has brought new life to our ideas.




Fig. 7 - The posters designed by Dr. Tarabella to publicize our research.


It was also very important for us to extend contacts with other institutions and bodies with whom we have entered into collaborations and shared their knowledge. For example with the Romualdo Del Bianco Foundation with whom we have signed an agreement in 2018 for the promotion of archaeoacoustics and research in this field.




Fig. 8 - The signing of the agreement with the Romualdo Del Bianco Foundation. On the left the dr. Paolo Del Bianco and on the right the architect Natalia Tarabella for the SBRG.


We thank all again for your support.

SBRG - May 20, 2018





News from Macedonia

Our member from Republic of Macedonia, Nikola Ristevski, has started with publishing of his magnum opus. Last year he managed to digitally publish several of his books: Imaginarium of Doctor Solaris, All Seeing I, Luminous Neutrino and the preview of the first book with excerpts from old books covering his home region – the great valley of Ovche Pole and the city of Sveti Nikole (Saint Nicholas). On the feast of Saint Nicholas, according to the Julian calendar, December 19th, 2016, he published his first printed book – Imaginarium of Doctor Solaris. The publisher is the International Center for Slavic Education fromSveti Nikole. The book was reviewed by artist Aleksandar Stankovski, who also made a painting with title “Imaginarium inspired by the words of Ristevski,”. The foreword is by our member Domagoj Nikolic, commentary by a Bulgarian journalist Stoycho Kerev and the closing remarks by another member of our group, Velimir Abramovic. The “Imaginarium of Doctor Solaris” is available for purchase through the official FB fan page, where you can find book excerpts and media coverage. The second printed book by Ristevski – “Ovce Pole – book one” is currently being prepared for printing and will be published soon. The book launch party for both books will be held in the Saint Nicholas, Macedonia.



The work of our scientist, Nikola Ristevski , has inspired Domagoj Nikolic to extend and upgrade his astro-archaeological work and join him in the research of Ovche Pole. Their efforts in turn brought the Super Brain Research Group to the exploration of the great geoglyph in Kanda. The group has subsequently published three scientific papers in renowned scientific publications and is currently seeking approval of the Macedonian authorities to complete the work with the ground penetrating radar. Nikola’s research was recognized by the director of International Slavic University in Macedonia, Yordan Gjorchev, who granted him a full scholarship for master studies and added him to the staff of the Institute for Culture and Art. The university publisher will soon print the three SBRG scientific papers in English, Russian and Macedonian in a special publication.

Our 32 year old scientist has been working hard for more than half a decade. In 2017 he plans to publish the works of his two grandfathers in two separate books – one with historical texts about Ovche Pole valley, and another with newspaper reportages from old printed media from all over former Yugoslavia covering Sveti Nikole and Ovche Pole. Another project in his pipeline is a guidebook titled “Hikers guide for Ovche Pole”.

Our scientist was officially unemployed for years, but managed to fund his existence in the material world doing odd jobs including shadow journalism, gonzo journalism and reporting. Last year he was responsible for promotion of the archeological site Bylazora, the ancient capital of Paeonia. The website LOZA, owned, managed and edited by Nikola Ristevski is working without any commercials, and finally there is a GoFundMe campaign where you can make donations. Ristevski managed to publish his first book with the help of his friends and fans, but yet needs some more ink and paper to complete his magnum opus. His friends made another GoFundMe campaign for supporting the publishing of this magnum opus. More information available at




Healing aspects identified by archaeoacoustic techniques in Slovenia

TAG: archaeoacoustics, archaeo-acoustics, archeology, vibrations, infrasounds, Laško, Rimske Terme, Roman baths, thermal baths, vibrational energy, SBRG, SB Research Group.



At the end of July 2015 some members of SBRG group, Debertolis and Gullà, went to the North of Slovenia for an archeaoacoustic assessment of the site located in the vicinity of the Roman baths in the area of Laško.


In previous research carried out in the ancient Roman site of Felix Romuliana, Serbia (P. Debertolis, M. Zivic: "Archaeoacoustic analysis of Cybele’s temple, Imperial Roman Palace of Felix Romuliana, Serbia", Journal of Anthropology and Archaeology, Vol. 3 (2), 2015: pag. 1-19) we hypothesied that the construction of a sacred temple inside the palace by Roman architects was deliberate. The positioning and orientation took account of the presence of underground water whoose vibrations can affect the psyche (for example of ritual officiants within the building). Such vibrations were caused by the movement of underground water which emerged from the ground close to this temple leading to the construction of a thermal plant in the palace.

The hypothesis expands on this stating the architects of the time, a particular category of soothsayers, the so-called àuguri, has the ability to analyze local physical phenomena (such as groundwater or tectonic movement or vibration) using various methods of divination. Such was the potential impact on health, which could favor or harm those who have stayed there for long time, similar divination techniques were used to find where to place a military camp.

The study of geopathy, as a complementary science to medicine, is relatively new and in many medical circles still not recognized. In contrast, ancient Romans were familiar with this gave due consideration as to the exact siting of a particular public building, military field or spa.

To explore this hypothesis further, we went to the Laško spa area, where a thermal plant built over the original Roman baths exists. We analyzed the Rimske Terme Hotel with the owner, located over the original Roman settlementto perform an analysis of the vibrations present in the eighteenth century stone baths (replacing the original Roman ones in the same location).


Fig. 1 - The Rimske Terme Hotel Spa built right on top of the ancient Roman baths and integrates also the original tanks. It is nestled in the wood and has a large garden.


The analysis was extended to include the garden surrounding the hotel, once home to other Roman buildings no longer in existence and where for centuries exotic trees such as redwoods have stood.
The spa is still open today, in the 18th and 19th centuries, it was reserved for kings and nobles. For example, the spa bath used by Josephine Bonaparte Murat, wife of the king of Naples and sister of the more well known Napoleon I, Emperor of France.



 Fig. 2 - The original bath used by Josephine Bonaparte with a commemorative plaque in German above it.

Materials and methods
Our study is focussed on the research of vibrations in the audible and inaudible abnds (infrasound and ultrasound) through use of highly sensitive water microphones (Hydrophones from North American company Aquaria). These were positioned within the stone spa baths filled with water alongside which, air microphones were positioned outside the building over a Roman bath.  These Roman stone baths remain buried in the soil and represent ideal transducers to collect subsurface vibrations which are better transmitted through the water. Measurements were taken only after the stone baths were filled, allowing time for any parasite sound from the pipes to disappate.

Inside the building we used a professional three channel geophone equipped with  Geobox SR04S3 dedicated software from Sara Electronic Instruments. This set up is used in the field of geophysics to identify the presence of tectonic or underground water through detecting vibrations in the range of 0.1Hz and 600Hz. This equipment was used to compare two different research methods. The geophone can not be immersed in water, however it is a highly sensitive instrument, widely used in the field of seismology to detect earthquake swarms as precursors of earthquakes.



Fig. 3 - Top: the recording equipment Tascam DR-680 connected to the ultra-sensitive microphones. Bottom: the microphones placed inside the tanks totally submerged in the water.


In order to make visible the effects and dispersion of vibrations in the air a TRV camera (variable resonance camera, known in Italy as Merlin camera or Defend X system in Japan) was also used, along with specific annex software able to process the minimum vibratory differences present in the air consequent to the movement of air molecules visible only instrumentally in the various frames of video. The software connected to the TRV works by highlighting the movement and change of chromaticity of the pixels of the collected image in UV band. For this, a lower resolution is used to avoid overloading the computational power of the computer. Reassembling the frames collected one on the other (standard deviation or STD) we have an image in the air of vibrations spread from underground.

This technique, already widely used in previous investigations by our research group and published extensively in scientific literature (Debertolis, Gullà & Richeldi 2014; Debertolis & Gullà, 2015) has to date been able to detect deep vibrations from the movement of underlying thermal waters that invest the overlying areas. In this respect, it has proven to be reliable technology.


The old stone baths in the oldest building and the small rooms inside were examined. All the equipment used detected deep infrasounds (inaudable) from underground. It is conceivable that when the human body is immersed in the thermal water, it is invested integrally by certain vibrations which have an effect on the physical body generating a sense of being.

Fig. 4 - A peak of around 14-15Hz is constant and more or less at the same volume level (-53db) in all stone baths examined to date and is accompanied by various ambient noises. In this case from the fall of a drop from the tap in the bath full of water that generates a peak between 1,000 and 3.000Hz.


Depending on the ambient noise, this level of peak appears constant in volume oscillating briefly around 14-15Hz. It is sometimes accompanied by various other spurious vibrations, but with irrelevant content for the inconstancy and inconsistency of these.

This kind of vibration (we highlight mechanical stress and not electromagnetic waves) has been found from our research group at various sites considered  "sacred" that perhaps for this reason were possibly in some way revered by ancient people, as a well-being feeling.

Of interest to note is that the maximum length of time guests can stay in the bath, should not exceed 20 minutes (due to high water temperature). However, the exposure to these infrasounds for prolonged periods can overload the human body by creating a disease. Inside the pavilion with its small rooms containing the hot baths, the TRV camera observered that the vibrations seem to spread in the air causing abnormally funny morphologies to move in a curious way.



Fig. 5 - The same bath from Figure 2 taken by TRV camera in the UV band. Above: the spread of vibrations in the air in black-white image. Below: the same image but in which through the color it is possible to distinguish the vibration frequency (higher red, blue lowest). The areas in black appear unexplained.


Outside of the small rooms these vibrators are also detectable, as an unexplained phenomenon that appears to the TRV camera to be vibratory "holes" in which the vibrations appear to focus. The TRV camera was repeatedly controlled, however, the same results were obtained. Software or hardware errors were ruled out and for now these images are difficult to interpret.


Fig. 6 - The entrance hall of the pavilion that includes the thermal baths taken in the visible band (above) and in UV band after the TRV camera processing (below).


Fig. 7 - The same big room of Figure 6 taken from another angle in the visible band (above) and in UV band after TRV camera processing (below).


The data obtained from the geophone correlates with the same taken from the microphones and digital recorder. In the plot below, the geophone was positioned on the marbled paved flooring next to the baths, a peak of around 14-15Hz is recognisable along with a series of noises between 4-11 Hz. There is no significant peak that remains constant in time for which a specific meaning can be attributed (Fig. 8).


Fig. 8 - Above: the graph from the geophone in one of the baths. Highlighted in red is the 14-15Hz with a variable volume. It follows an indistinct line of noise between 4 and 11 Hz. Bottom: analytical operations through the geophone.


This particular vibration was not found to be present outside the pavilion in the garden in front of the hotel. Other types of vibrations however, were detected by German researchers that most likely marked the most salient positions the water is channeled at various locations, (these results have yet to be published). 

Within the reported points by German researchers it was possible to detect a considerable variability of high volume peaks at significantly different frequencies, indicating the different morphology of the sub-surface soil along with a generation of certain sounds origninating from an underground thermal spring.


Fig. 9 - Surveys in the no. 1 position at different times. The detected frequency appears constantly around 29Hz at high volumes (-30 dB).


In the no.1 position in the garden by Rimske Terme there is an evidence of a high volume vibration of 29Hz (Figure 9), most likely origniating from the underground thermal water capable of generating a magnetic spiral disturbance (Figure 10), something that has  been well-documented using UV band photography and video and by computer analysis according to the Block Matching method (Figure 11).



Fig. 10 - Point no. 1 in Rimske Terme garden taken from three different points of view. In front, a magnetic spiral field generated by the groundwater, identifiable by TRV camera and the Block Matching technique.


The Block Matching method divides the image into areas (blocks) associated with the detection of air movement that changes the brightness of the pixels within the digital image. Software calculates the estimated motion of air particles in a magnetic field by comparing the previous frame (where the image is separated through giving a value to an area) then sliding the pixels to obtain the maximum displacement area (Figure 11).

The difference in pixel brightness is determined by the steam vapour present in the air particles which naturally tend to form in a similar fashion to a dipole in a magnetic field. This micro movement is not perceived with the naked eye, but can be detected by the camera. The frames obtained from the video are individually analyzed and placed on the stack by the software (which is somewhat slow due to the huge amount of data processing required).


Fig. 11 - Analysis by software system named Block Matching (Gullà).


At the other points investigated in the hotel spa garden, especially at points 3 and 6 marked by German researchers, we were unable to detect such a powerful noise (maximum -45dB) at different frequencies from  the 14Hz detected within the thermal baths.
The vibrations in the garden have a very original dispersion and UV band analysis by the TRV camera generates very strange shapes.


 Fig. 12 - The garden adjoining Rimske Terme. The person sitting at the base of the tree in the foreground gives an indiaciton of the size of the centuries old redwood trees.

Fig. 13 – The dispersion of vibrations inside the garden next to the hotel.


 Fig. 14 - Dispersion of the vibrations in the garden taken in a shooting image at eye level.


The findings by the geophone more than one kilometer from the thermal center have shown that the vibration flows emanate from below the surface and are completely different and devoid of interest from the psychophysical point of view.



Fig. 15 - Surveys carried out 1 km away from the spa: there are not vibrations having a profile for psychological well-being.


Discussion and conclusions

As with previous research carried out in Serbia in 2013, the positioning of the Roman baths in the Laško area does not appear to be totally random. The presence of infrasounds in those areas we examined which can change the state of consciousness and mood of exposed people to create a wellbeing state has been detected by our instruments. In particular, the thermal baths area in which the 14Hz infrasound frequency is found, has a definate positive effect on the human body as we reported in previous our researches.

How was it that nearly 2,000 years ago the ancient Romans were able to find this well-being location without use of the measuring devices we have today? It is believed that through the combined use of empirical knowledge of thermal waters from the Etruscans and the use of the soothsayers, the augurs.  The ancient Romans had a high regard for these augurs, a class of priests; Titus Livius wrote in his book "History of Rome" that no decision on war or peace was taken in ancient Rome before consulting the “collegium” board (Titus Livius, Book VI). This college was formed of fifteen members chosen by the 'dictator' Silla, whose decisions (which were not about predicting the future), were required for the “approval” of the Gods (Titus Livius, Book I). Such decisionst could be viewed like a feasibility study on any business to needed to be undertaken.

The augurs have always been regarded as a special group of priests within a larger group of soothsayers (aruspices), their work since at the time of the Etruscan culture was to interpret and understand the general will of the gods. A tradition whoose origin goes back to the early days of the founding of Rome, some historians such as Squadrilli (1961) and Beard (1998) place this tradition  at the time of Romulus. In more recent times, the augurs are often associated with interpretating the flight of birds, carrying a stick with a bent tip like an umbrella called a "lituum", whose function was to limit the number of birds seen in sky so that their behavior could be observed with care. This has been considered a mere superstition, which ignores birds remarkable sensitivity to environmental factors. Few people however, remember that this lituum was also used as a divining rod, and therefore it could be argued the art of dowsing was known to the Romans since the Etruscan times. At the very least, this class of soothsayers was used to search for hot springs in the Laško area to precisely locate the baths.

In modern times, dowsing has been confined to the realms of pseudo-science, however one of our collaborators revived the augurs ancient tradition by detecting natural phenomena using a pair of copper dowsing rods. In the ancient Roman palace Felix Romuliana, Serbia they obtained many successes which were later confirmed by our equipment in approximaltely 80% of cases (Debertolis and Zivic, 2015). In particular, they discovered the presence of underground water at a number of locations within the palace in the form of "blind springs", where a given number of water veins rise vertically below the surface without actually emerging above ground. Of interest is that at these same positions our research collaborator found such ‘springs’ our equipment (ultra-sensitive microphones) detected the presence of infrasounds believed to originate from the movement of such underground water.

In medical science it is well known that in the hands and chestexist vibratory receptors, the so-called Meissner’s sensors, which are capable of detecting non-audible vibrations. It is evident that personal experience and training was important for the ancient augurs to understand where the best vibrations existed to place a military camp, a spa or palace. In modern times, such studies are being rediscovered in the field of bio-architecture that takes into account characteristics of the location and surrounding environment before any construction takes place, in order to avoid the onset of geopathic stress for future occupants.

It is clear that Just as in ancient Romans times, where the thermal baths were frequented by the nobility and kings of that time,  their present day location inside the hotel remains unchanged and and in modern times, anyone can benefit from their wellbeing properties.

Paolo Debertolis & Daniele Gullà, March 30, 2016.


A sincere thank you for having made available to our research the structure of Rimske Terme goes to its owner, Valery Arakelov, whose courtesy enabled us to achieve substantial results. Likewise, we are grateful to her gentle collaborator, Elizabeth Corniali, for the excellent support we received during our investigation and for his patience in tolerating all our scientific needs.



  1. M. Beard, J. North, S. Price: “Religions of Rome: A History”, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  2. P. Debertolis, M. Zivić: “Archaeoacoustic analysis of Cybele’s temple, Imperial Roman Palace of Felix Romuliana, Serbia”, Journal of Anthropology and Archaeology, Vol. 3 (2), 2015: 1-19.
  3. P. Debertolis, H.A. Savolainen: “The phenomenon of resonance in the Labyrinth of Ravne (Bosnia-Herzegovina). Resultsof testing” Proceedings of ARSA Conference (Advanced Research in Scientific Areas), Bratislava (Slovakia), December, 3 – 7, 2012: 1133-36.
  4. P. Debertolis, N. Bisconti: “Archaeoacoustics in ancient sites” Proceedings of the “1st International Virtual Conference on Advanced Scientific Results” (SCIECONF 2013), Zilina (Slovakia) June, 10 - 14, 2013: 306-310.
  5. P. Debertolis, N. Bisconti: “Archaeoacoustics analysis and ceremonial customs in an ancient hypogeum”, Sociology Study, Vol.3 no.10, October 2013: 803-814.
  6. P. Debertolis, S. Mizdrak, H. Savolainen: “The Research for an Archaeoacoustics Standard”, Proceedings of 2nd ARSA Conference (Advanced Research in Scientific Areas), Bratislava (Slovakia), December, 3 – 7, 2013: 305-310.
  7. P. Debertolis, N. Bisconti: “Archaeoacoustics analysis of an ancient hypogeum in Italy”, Proceedings of Conference "Archaeacoustics: The Archaeology of Sound", Malta, February 19 - 22, 2014: 131-139.
  8. P. Debertolis, G. Tirelli, F. Monti: “Systems of  acoustic resonance in ancient sites and related brain activity”. Proceedings of Conference "Archaeoacoustics: The Archaeology of Sound", Malta, February 19 – 22, 2014: 59-65.
  9. P. Debertolis, A. Tentov, D. Nicolić, G. Marianović, H. Savolainen, N. Earl: “Archaeoacoustic analysis of the ancient site of Kanda (Macedonia)”. Proceedings of 3rd ARSA Conference (Advanced Research in Scientific Areas), Zilina (Slovakia), December, 1 – 5, 2014: 237-251.
  10. P. Debertolis, F. Coimbra, L. Eneix: “Archaeoacoustic Analysis of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum in Malta”, Journal of Anthropology and Archaeology, Vol. 3 (1), 2015: 59-79.
  11. P. Debertolis, D. Gullà: “Archaeoacoustic analysis of the ancient town of Alatri in Italy”, British Journal of Interdisciplinary Sciece, September, Vol. 2, (3), 2015: 1-29.
  12. P. Debertolis, D. Nicolić, G. Marianović, H. Savolainen, N. Earl, N. Ristevski: “Archaeoacoustic analysis of Kanda Hill in Macedonia. Study of the peculiar EM phenomena and audio frequency vibrations”, Proceedings of 4th ARSA Conference (Advanced Research in Scientific Areas), Zilina (Slovakia), November 9 – 13, 2015: 169-177.
  13. P. Debertolis, D. Gullà, Richeldi F.: “Archaeoacoustic analysis of an ancient hypogeum using new TRV camera (Variable Resonance Camera) technology”, Proceedings of the “2nd International Virtual Conference on Advanced Scientific Results” (SCIECONF 2014), Žilina (Slovakia), June, 9 - 13, 2014: 323-329.
  14. T. Squadrilli: “Vicissitudes and monuments of Rome”, Staderini Editore, Roma, 1961: 25.
  15. Tito Livio: “History of Rome”, Book I, 35,3.
  16. Tito Livio: “Auspiciis hanc urbem conditam esse, auspiciis bello ac pace domi militiaeque omnia geri, quis est qui ignoret?”, in “History of Rome”, Book VI, 41.


Edited by Nina Earl 


Study of archaeoacoustic characteristics in Argimusco megalithic site (Sicily, Italy)

Tag: archaeoacoustics, archaeo-acoustics, Argimusco, Etna, Val Demone, low frequencies, rock carvings, rock art,  infrasound, cupel, purification pool, SBRG, SBRG, SB Research Group

In late June 2015, coinciding with a series of conferences in Sicily (Messina, Pedara, Montalbano) organized by E-Media Spa and at the invitation of its President Gaetano Santoro, some members of SBRG (Debertolis, Gullà, Tarabella) have traveled to this beautiful island to conduct investigations of archaeoacustics in Val Demone, located in North-East Sicily.

Our research mainly focused on the Argimusco plateau (Messina) with its megaliths, the Etna volcano and surrounding areas. Our attention was attracted in particular to the Argimusco megaliths although they are of natural origin, they act as great transducers of underground vibrations as with other sacred sites we analyzed.




Fig. 1 - Some moments during the surveys at Argimusco plateau



The site has to be considered an ancient sacred place, corroborated by the presence of purification pools carved into the rock along with cupels used for sacrifices with well engraved drains. These artifacts are typical of ancient places of pagan worship.




Fig. 2 - Above: a purification pool carved into the rock of a Argimusco megalith. Below and in the middle: a cupel for sacrifices with the channel for the flow of blood engraved on an Argimusco megalith


These artifacts are not uncommon, they can also be found in other Neolithic sites throughout the world, such as Sogmatar in Turkish Kurdistan close the the Syrian border. A site recognized in scientific literature as a very ancient place of worship. In particular, although there is a considerable geographical distance between Argimusco plateau in Sicily and Sogmatar plateau in Turkey, the morphology of these artifacts are totally comparable.


Fig. 3 - The Sogmatar plateau,Turkish Kurdistan (click to enlarge)


 Fig. 4 - Above: a purifying pool carved into the rock of Sogmatar plateau in southeastern Turkey. Below: a cupel for sacrifices with the channel for the flow of blood engraved in the stone of Sogmatar


If for Sogmatar the dating of these artifacts is difficult, it is even more so to date Argimusco artifacts, where unlike Sogmatar there is no incision that can be attributed to a period.
The landscape of Argimusco looks decidedly impressive in its complexity, located a short distance to the Etna volcano as the crow flies.


Fig. 5 - Some views of  Argimusco plateau and its megaliths


We measured very interesting vibrations in this location which appeared to be transmitted from the volcano, almost certainly due to the movement of magma.
For comparison we looked at other locations in the area of Etna volcano from Catania to Messina province.
In some locations around the Argimusco plateau, a vibration of around 8 Hz is found, as also found on the slopes of Etna volcano to a volume of 36dB.



 Fig. 6 - There is a significant component of infrasounds in the centre of Argimusco plateau around 8 Hz up to a volume of 36dB (taken by ultrasensitive microphones in air)


Even in the village of Pedara (Catania), just a few kilometers from the volcano we found a large numer of vibrations (infrasounds) between a few Hz and 10-12Hz.



Fig. 7 - Vibrator reliefs held in Pedara (Catania) with the geophone


Measuring the vibrations in a secondary crater of Etna volcano we detected practically continuous vibrations, due to the activity of the volcano. These vibrations are detectable with the same wavelength, but much more powerful in volume compared to Pedara town.



 Fig. 8 – The remarks made by geophone or high-sensitivity microphones and digital recorder in a secondary crater of Etna


 Fig. 9 – Some pictures taken with infrared camera showing the different composition of the cold lava terrain

The recordings carried out by ultra-sensitive microphones showed a "rumble" of infrasound with a peak around 10-12Hz to 28dB. It is definitely of sufficiently high volume to interfere with human physiology.


Fig. 10 – The peak of infrasounds at 10-12Hz  present inside the secondary crater as recorded by ultra-sensitive microphones in the air



Fig. 11 – The graphics of the remarks from the geophone, a geological device able to grasp more accurately infrasounds coming from underground


Visually you can see by the eye of our special cameras these vibrations as a succession of light coming from the rocks. This is well evidenced by the video below.


Click here for the video


In the following audio file the recorded infrasounds are transposed by software into the audible range, they appear to match the same pulses as the video images (listen here - we have to remember that, given the wide range of bass frequencies in the sound file, you must use high-fidelity headphones for hear them). It should be remembered that infrasound vibrations are inaudible to the human ear, but they could be perceived by vibrator receptors in the skin in sensitive people. For being able to hear, we had to move (transpose) the sound file up the audible band. Obviously this process changes the frequency of sound file, but not the characteristics of pulsing vibrations.

This type of vibration seemed to have a calming effect on the psyche of volunteers who have lent to the psychophysiological measurements in the same crater. Despite the windy and cold day.


Fig. 12 - Results of psychophysiological measurements on a volunteer within a secondary crater of Etna volcano



The same look and feel of psychophysiological measures in volunteers we have been able to observe in a dormant crater for more than 200 years at the base of the volcano (Mount Sona), a sign that these low frequencies have a positive effect on psychomotor skills of the examined subjects.


Fig. 13 - Evaluation of the psycho-physiological conditions of a volunteer inside the extinct crater of Mount Sona

The empirical assumption is therefore that this type of vibration can lead to a kind of psycho-physical relaxation for anyone in these places.

As regards Argimusco plateau, in addition to vibrations already detected in other neighboring areas around Etna, an interesting natural emission of electromagnetic waves of tectonic origin in the VLF (Very Low Frequencies) field has been observed. They were found in two peaks on the central plateau, but not elsewhere of 25 and 43KHz.


Fig. 14 - Spectrum of the electromagnetic waves on Argimusco plateau



The vibrations found here, appear in the same spectrum also noted on Etna volcano, but much less intense as detectable by the following chart.


Fig. 15 - Vibrations aspect detected by the geophone in Argimusco plateau near the megaliths


This difference is particularly evident if we overlap the two graphs, taken in the secondary crater of Etna (above) and found on Argimusco plateau (below).


Fig. 16 - Appearance of the two graphs of vibrations collected by the geophone between the secondary crater of Etna volcano (graphic higher) and those recorded in the vicinity of the Argimusco megaliths (lower graph). The morphology is similar, but the sound volume is lower


We observed an interesting phenomenon on some natural megaliths on Argimusco plateau: they can be made to resonate by the human voice, creating a kind of reverb that is visible instrumentally.
To perform this experiment we had the collaboration of a professional singer, Flavia Vallega, who uses the natural musical scale with "A" set at 432Hz.
In the pictures below, detected by the variable resonance camera (TRV, used in a lot our researches for making visible the vibrations), you can discriminate various areas with high vibratory response that appear lighter in color.


Fig. 17 - Analysis of the effect of resonance obtained by variable resonance camera (TRV) on a megalith after Flavia Vallega sings. The different colors of the spectrum indicate different areas of vibrations moving at different frequency


We obtained very interesting results in the analysis carried out by vector computer programs. These can highlight the variations in brightness of the molecules of water steam in the air which align themselves as a dipole in a magnetic field. The results of analysis seem to suggest that this phenomenon develops a spiral magnetic field during the resonance of the megalith shown clearly in the below image. But we will need to investigate further before drawing any conclusions.


Fig. 18 - Spiral magnetic field that seems to be generated during the resonance of megalith found by TRV camera


There is also a vibration in the audible range in the proximity of the megalith called the "Baboon" that the silence and in the absence of wind can be heard quite easily into the cavity present in it.

it is a dominant frequency of 26Hz followed by various harmonics up to about 60Hz. This sound in the audible range (listen here - use again Hi-Fi headphones), given its characteristics it is conceivable to be a movement attributable to an underground stream that visitors to the site in ancient times may have perceived as the sound of God voice. We have decided to call it "the Voice of Argimusco".


Fig. 19 - Spectrum of sound frequencies detected near the megalith called the "Baboon", clearly audible a low frequencies (Argimusco’s Voice)


Other megaliths of Argimusco plateau have a considerable resonance phenomenon. Near the megalith called the "Praying" there is a huge megalith with many cavities on its surface which act as many small resonators.
In this case, as well as the human voice, percussion instruments were used that possess a more extended bandwidth sound with its harmonics starting from the lowest frequencies.




Fig. 20 - Some phases of the resonance experiment by the "shamanic" or "Irish" drum (single head drum) to megalith


Fig. 21 - Appearance of the frequency response of the megalith by staining after striking the shamanic drum. Lighter colors correspond to a vibration response with higher frequency


The different coloring presented in Figure 21 is a subdivision of frequencies for hues.
This phenomenon is clearly visible by measuring instruments, it is amazing and shows the megalithic rock lighting for vibrations at the same time of the drum rhythm. Everything is clearly visible in the next video in which you can grasp the vibrating rhythm of the megalith that resonates synchronously to drumbeats.



Click here for the video


It is conceivable that the percussion instrument possesses numerous successive harmonics in addition to the base frequency, able to stimulate the large number of different cavities.

Is it possible that these empirical phenomena were known to ancient people, if so they did utilise them in some way? We cannot be sure, but we think that the sacredness of this place from ancient times is due to observation of such phenomena by our ancestors.
In other sacred sites we examined in several European and Asian countries (Malta, Serbia, Italy, England, Turkey and Kurdistan, Portugal etc.) we always found some phenomenon that was not also present in other nearby areas. It was not by accident a particular location was choosen to build a temple or perform sacred rites in virtue of these phenomena, capable of influencing the psyche of those who stood in those places.



Fig. 22 - A few more striking images of Argimusco megaliths on which hangs the ominous shadow of the volcano


It is undisputed that these surveys carried out within a week will be investigated in a systematic way with more missions to these locations again.

Paolo Debertolis, Daniele Gullà, Natalia Tarabella – October 30, 2015



Thanks to the E-Media Spa and the President Gaetano Santoro, its vice-president Rossella Guglielmino for collaboration and their availability thoughout this research. A great sincere thank you goes to Mauro Di Salvo. A hug from all of us to Flavia Vallega for her very beautiful voice that has managed to resonanate the Argimusco megaliths. Our thanks also go to all those who have contributed to the results of the experiments and the success of the conferences in archaeoacoustics.



Most of the photographs were taken by the architect Natalia Tarabella, on the left in the photo together with our collaborators Santo and Irene. The measurements were performed by Paolo Debertolis and Daniele Gullà.


 Edited by Nina Earl

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